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Synovial effusion is an augmentation of the volume of synovial fluid within a joint as a result of synovitis. Synovial effusion of the DIP joint is commonly seen in horses with osteoarthritis, 1 subchondral cysts, 2,3 and septic arthritis 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

TnI is a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial damage; thus, it may have use as an indicator of cardiac involvement in patients with hemangiosarcoma. In 1 study, 2 evaluation of cTnI and cTnT concentrations in dogs with pericardial effusion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, the prevalence of such a radiographic finding for dogs with CT attributable to PE and the sensitivity and specificity of such findings for identification of dogs with that problem have not been reported. Pericardial effusion may not be identified in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine signalment, diagnoses, presence of effusions in multiple sites, and outcome in cats with peritoneal effusion.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

65 cats.

Procedure

Medical records from 1981 to 1997 were reviewed to obtain information on cats with peritoneal effusion identified on physical examination, radiographs, abdominal ultrasonograms, or at necropsy.

Results

Conditions most commonly associated with peritoneal effusion in cats, in order of frequency, were cardiovascular disease, neoplasia, hepatic disease, renal disease, feline infectious peritonitis, peritonitis attributable to other causes, and urinary tract trauma. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was the most common disease associated with peritoneal effusion; however, DCM was diagnosed in most of these cats before taurine deficiency was found to be a primary cause of this form of cardiomyopathy in cats. Neoplasia was the most common cause after 1987. Right-sided congestive heart failure was the most commonly associated disorder in cats < 1 year old, whereas neoplastic disease was more common with increasing age. Most effusions were detected during the initial physical examination and were modified transudates. Peritoneal effusion was commonly accompanied by fluid accumulation elsewhere, particularly pleural effusion. The prognosis for a cat with abdominal effusion in this study was poor (mean survival time, 21 days; range, 1 to 350 days; median, 2.5 days).

Clinical Implications

The primary differential diagnosis for peritoneal effusion in cats is neoplastic disease in older cats and right-sided heart failure in kittens. Diseases associated with peritoneal effusion generally have poor prognoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:375–381)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Pericardial effusion is defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space and is the most frequent pericardial disorder in dogs. 1–3 Small amounts of pericardial fluid are often clinically irrelevant, but large amounts of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Case records of 9 dogs and 5 cats with eosinophilic effusions were reviewed. The animals ranged from 11 months to 13 years old. Seven animals had pleural effusions, 5 had peritoneal effusions, and 2 had pleural and peritoneal effusions.

Neoplasia was confirmed in 6 animals and suspected in 1. Eosinophilic pleural effusion was diagnosed 2 days after pneumothorax developed as a consequence of thoracic tube placement in a cat, and pneumothorax was diagnosed in another cat with eosinophilic peritoneal effusion. Other abnormalities seen in 1 or 2 animals associated with eosinophilic effusion were radiographic signs of interstitial or peribronchial pulmonary infiltrates, a history of allergic respiratory tract and skin disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia and lung lobe torsion, chylothorax, bite wounds causing intestinal perforation, and feline leukemia virus infection.

Based only on the protein concentration of the effusion, 7 effusions were classified as transudates and 7 were classified as exudates. Five of the 14 animals had eosinophilia (> 1,200 eosinophils/μl); 3 of these animals had neoplastic disease. Mean eosinophil count in blood samples was not significantly different between animals with neoplasia and those without. Eosinophil counts in blood samples were not linearly related to counts in effusions; however, in some animals the number of eosinophils in the effusion was much higher than the eosinophil count in blood, suggesting concentration of eosinophils in the effusion.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

frequently placed to monitor and quantify pleural space fluid and air accumulation and used to prevent significant pleural effusion or pneumothorax development postoperatively. 7 , 8 Thoracostomy tubes are associated with postoperative complications with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine factors associated with disease-free interval and survival time for dogs with pericardial effusion.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

46 dogs.

Procedure

Signalment, history, results of physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography; disease-free interval; and survival time were obtained from medical records or telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results

Dogs that had ascites at the time of the initial physical examination were significantly less likely, and dogs that had evidence of pulmonary metastases on thoracic radiographs or that had echocardiographic evidence of a right atrial mass were significantly more likely, to have died of pericardial effusion or the underlying cause of effusion than were dogs that did not. Median survival time was 15.3 months for dogs with idiopathic pericardial effusion, 16 days for dogs with hemangiosarcoma, and 13.6 months for dogs with mesothelioma. Dogs that had a nonspecific extracardiac mass and underwent pericardiectomy were significantly less likely to have had recurrence of signs than were dogs that did not. However, dogs with mesothelioma or hemangiosarcoma that underwent pericardiectomy did not have a significantly different risk of recurrence of signs or survival time, compared with dogs that did not.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that pericardiectomy will not affect risk of recurrence or survival time in dogs with pericardial effusion secondary to hemangiosarcoma or mesothelioma. However, pericardiectomy is still needed to differentiate dogs with neoplastic pericardial effusion from dogs with idiopathic pericardial effusion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1276–1280)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical characteristics and clinicopathologic findings, including results of pericardial fluid analysis, and determine the outcome associated with pericardial effusion caused by cardiac lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed for echocardiographic findings, radiographic findings, results of pericardial fluid analysis, clinicopathologic findings, treatment protocols, and outcomes.

Results—Pericardial effusion was detected by echocardiography in all 12 dogs, and lymphoma was detected by cytologic examination of the effusion (11/12 dogs) or histologic examination of pericardium (3/12). Large-breed dogs were overrepresented; median weight was 40.5 kg (89.1 lb). Most hematologic and biochemical changes were mild and nonspecific. Survival time for dogs treated with combination chemotherapeutic agents was 157 days and for dogs that did not receive chemotherapy survival time was 22 days. This difference was not significant, but several dogs had long-term survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiac lymphoma is an uncommon cause of pericardial effusion, and results suggest that cardiac lymphoma does not always warrant the poor prognosis of other stage V, substage b lymphomas. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227:1449–1453)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe complications and outcome associated with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion treated with pleuroperitoneal shunts in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records at 4 veterinary schools were examined to identify dogs with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion that were treated by use of a pleuroperitoneal shunt between 1985 and 1999. Signalment, history, physical examination and laboratory findings, cause and type of pleural effusion, medical and surgical treatments, complications, and outcome were reviewed.

Results—10 of 14 dogs had idiopathic chylothorax, and 4 had an identified disease. All but 1 dog with idiopathic chylothorax and 1 dog with chylothorax from a heart base tumor had unsuccessful thoracic duct ligation prior to pump placement. No intraoperative complications developed during shunt placement. Short-term complications developed in 7 of 13 dogs, necessitating shunt removal in 2 dogs and euthanasia in 1. Eight of 11 dogs with long-term follow- up developed complications; the overall mean survival time and the interval in which dogs remained free of clinical signs of pleural effusion were 27 months (range, 1 to 108 months) and 20 months (range, 0.5 to 108 months), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuroperitoneal shunts can effectively palliate clinical signs associated with intractable pleural effusion in dogs. Numerous short- and long-term complications related to the shunt should be expected. Most complications can be successfully managed, but even when shunts are functional some treatments fail because of severe abdominal distension or massive pleural fluid production that overwhelms the functional capacity of the shunt. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1590–1597)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association