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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine horses with (naturally acquired) congestive heart failure were treated with 2.2 μg of digoxin/kg of body weight by the Iv route, followed by 11 μg/kg administered orally every 12 hours thereafter. Furosemide was administered IV concurrently with IV administered digoxin every 12 hours. Serum concentration of digoxin was measured after the first (Iv) and seventh (orally administered) dose.

After Iv administration, digoxin disposition was described by a 2-compartment model, with a rapid distribution phase (t1/2α = 0.17 hour), followed by a slower elimination phase (β = 0.096 ± 0.055 h−1, t1/2β = 7.2 hours, where β is the exponential term from the elimination phase of the concentration vs time curve). Bioavailability after oral administration was 21.2 ± 10.8%. After the seventh orally administered dose, serum concentration of digoxin peaked 1 to 2 hours later, and was 1.9 ± 0.7 ng/ml (mean ± sd). In 4 horses, a second increase in serum digoxin concentration was observed 4 to 8 hours after the initial peak, which possibly was evidence of enterohepatic recycling of the drug.

Response to treatment included reduction in heart rate, peripheral edema, and pulmonary edema, but these could not be attributed to the digoxin alone because the horses were treated concurrently with furosemide.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Congestive heart failure was confirmed on the basis of findings from thoracic radiographs by the attending cardiologist and reviewed by the radiologist, and the diagnosis of MMVD was made on the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hemodynamics in patients with congestive heart failure . US Cardiol Rev 2017 ; 11 : 72 – 74 . 10.15420/ucs.2017:9:2 13. Masutani S , Senzaki H . Left ventricular function in adult patients with atrial septal defect: implication for development of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The function of atrial natriuretic peptide (anp) is claimed to be control of salt and water homeostasis, and thus, the hormone may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain diseases with impaired volume regulation. We, therefore, studied plasma anp concentration in dogs with chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure, and hyperadrenocorticism. Dogs with chronic renal failure had twofold higher plasma anp concentration (16.2 ± 5.8 fmol/ml), compared with healthy dogs (8.3 ± 3.5 fmol/ml). An even more distinct increase (sixfold) of plasma anp concentration was found in dogs with congestive heart failure (52.9 ± 29.7 fmol/ml). In contrast, dogs with hyperadrenocorticism did not have high anp plasma concentration (5.5 ± 2.0 fmol/ml). High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of plasma from dogs with congestive heart failure indicated that, in addition to the normal circulating form of anp (99-126), the unprocessed precursor anp (1-126) is detectable in the circulation. These qualitative and quantitative alterations of plasma anp concentration in dogs further suggest involvement of this peptide in the development and/or maintenance of diseases associated with impaired volume regulation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hyponatremic CHF should be investigated. ABBREVIATIONS ADH Antidiuretic hormone CDVD Chronic degenerative valve disease CHF Congestive heart failure DCM Dilated cardiomyopathy EIA Enzyme immunoassay La:Ao Left atrial-to-aortic root

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

congestive heart failure (CHF). 6 , 7 Unfortunately, the factors influencing this progression in the individual canine are not fully understood. It is known however that both cardiac remodeling and CHF can induce inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Congestive heart failure in dogs secondary to MVD and DCM is a common clinical syndrome and is associated with a poor prognosis. 1–3 Both early recognition and prompt treatment of CHF are of clinical importance. 4 Heart failure is diagnosed on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the prevalence of clinical signs that affect quality of life in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF), and to characterize the role of these clinical signs in the decision for euthanasia.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

38 dogs with CHF that had been euthanatized within the preceding 22 months.

Procedure

Clinical information and factors affecting the decision for euthanasia were reviewed and recorded from medical records of dogs with CHF. Each owner was then interviewed via telephone to determine whether their dog had anorexia or other clinical signs of disease prior to euthanasia, their perception of their dogs’ quality of life, and the most important factor and contributing factors that influenced the decision to euthanatize their dog.

Results

Of the 38 dogs with CHF, > 70% had weakness (35 dogs), coughing (33), anorexia (32), weight loss (32), dyspnea (30), or exercise intolerance (28) reported by their owners. Factors often named by owners as most important in the decision for euthanasia were poor prognosis given by the attending veterinarian, recurrent clinical signs of CHF (ie, coughing, dyspnea, or ascites), and poor quality of life. Weakness, anorexia, and recurrent clinical signs of CHF were the most common contributing factors in the decision for euthanasia.

Clinical Implications

Anorexia, weight loss, and exercise intolerance are common in dogs euthanatized because of CHF. The importance of quality of life and poor prognosis in making a decision for euthanasia suggests that addressing these factors may improve patient management. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1201–1204)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate short-term hemodynamic effects of ecadotril in a model of congestive heart failure in dogs.

Animals—6 conscious adult male dogs.

Procedures—Instruments were placed in dogs to measure left ventricular, aortic, and atrial blood pressures. Heart failure was induced by repeated coronary embolization with latex microspheres. Four times, and in random order, dogs were given vehicle or active drug (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg of body weight) orally. Hemodynamic variables, urine flow, and urinary electrolyte excretion were measured before and 30, 90, and 150 minutes, and 10 and 21 hours after drug administration.

Results—Changes in urine flow, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, or peak positive and negative rate of change in ventricular pressure were not apparent. Urinary sodium excretion significantly increased in response to the low and high doses of ecadotril but not in response to the 10 mg/kg dose. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) consistently decreased in dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximal group-averaged reductions in LVEDP were 5.2, 8.1, and 10 mm Hg for the low, middle, and high doses, respectively. The magnitude of the decrease in LVEDP was not related to cumulative change in urine flow.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered ecadotril reduced left ventricular filling pressures in these dogs by a mechanism that does not require a substantial diuretic effect. Ecadotril may be effective for alleviating clinical signs in dogs with left-sided heart failure and may be particularly beneficial for use in dogs that are refractory to traditional diuretic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 334–339)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research