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The development of the immune system of neonatal foals relies, in part, on the absorption of immunoglobulins subsequent to the ingestion of colostrum to confer humoral immunity. Failure of transfer of passive immunity in foals has been associated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

increases in specific IgG concentrations against these pathogens, which are then passively transferred to calves via colostrum. The purpose of the controlled trial reported here was to determine whether vaccinating cows during late gestation against M

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Maternal colostrum or maternal colostrum plus colostral supplement, composed of a blend of lyophilized colostrum and dried whey, was fed to 32 Holstein calves as soon as possible after birth (mean ± sem = 2.0 ± 0.2 hours) and, again, 12 hours later. Mean immunoglobulin concentration in colostrum was 59.2 mg/ml; mean immunoglobulin fraction in supplement was 11.4%. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and at 28 and 56 days. Hour/treatment interactions were significant for total immunoglobulin, IgG1, and IgM concentrations. Immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 12 hours (total immunoglobulin, IgG1, IgM) or 24 hours (IgG2) in calves fed colostrum plus supplement, whereas all immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 24 hours in calves fed maternal colostrum only. Peak mean immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of colostrum did not increase peak mean serum immunoglobulin concentration, but did alter the serum concentration-time profile from 12 to 72 hours after birth.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

most important source of MAP for within-herd transmission is considered to be feces from infected adult cattle, 3,17,19–21 MAP has also been detected in colostrum and milk collected from cows shedding MAP in their feces. 22–24 Feeding raw colostrum to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fecal-oral route. 3–5 Although early and adequate intake of colostrum is considered the single most important factor for preventing failure of passive transfer of IgG (defined as a calf serum IgG concentration < 10 mg/mL between 24 and 48 hours after

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mucosal damage, thereby preventing or minimizing clinical disease. Because administration of adsorbents to foals coincides with the period of passive transfer of colostral antibodies, 31–33 the effect of adsorbents on immunoglobulin (IgG) absorption must

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

utero. During the immediate preparturient period, pregnant cows initiate colostrogenesis, and blood cells and other colostral components migrate to the mammary gland 5–7 where their phenotype and function are altered. 8–11 Because bovine maternal and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of timing of firstmilking colostrum collection on colostral IgG concentration.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—13 healthy Holstein cows.

Procedures—All calvings were observed. After parturition, calves were not allowed to suckle and were separated from the dam. Colostrum was collected from a single randomly selected quarter at 2, 6, 10, and 14 hours after parturition until all 4 quarters were sampled. Colostral IgG concentration was determined via radial immunodiffusion.

Results—Mean colostral IgG concentration was 113, 94, 82, and 76 g/L at 2, 6, 10, and 14 hours after calving, respectively. Colostrum collected 6, 10, and 14 hours after calving had significantly lower IgG concentrations than did colostrum collected 2 hours after calving. Mean colostral IgG concentration at 14 hours after calving was significantly lower than that at 6 hours after calving. Cows in their third or greater lactation had mean colostral IgG concentrations 2 hours after calving (132 g/L) that were greater than the first and second lactation cows (mean, 95 and 100 g/L, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that early or immediate colostrum collection from dairy cows will maximize colostral IgG concentration. Adjustment of routine dairy farm management procedures may be required to maximize colostrum quality and minimize prevalence of failure of passive transfer in dairy calves. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1375–1377)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare the efficacy of 3 commercially available colostral-supplement products with that of natural bovine colostrum in providing immunoglobulins for passive transfer and disease protection.

Design

Prospective randomized control trial.

Animals

47 neonatal female Holstein calves from unassisted, observed births. Calves were vigorous, stood within 90 minutes of birth, and did not suckle their dams.

Procedure

Calves were fed 2 L of colostrum or a colostral-supplement product within 2 hours after birth and again prior to 12 hours of age. Serum IgG concentrations were measured at 24 and 48 hours after parturition, and apparent percentage of absorption for the colostrum and for each product was calculated. Prevalence of disease in all 4 groups of calves during the first 30 days of life was compared.

Results

Calves fed natural bovine colostrum (group 1) had highest serum IgG concentrations (range, 12.4 to 31.6 mg/ml) at 24 hours after birth, whereas serum IgG concentrations in calves fed colostral products ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mg/ml. Values for apparent percentage absorption of colostral IgG in group-1 calves was 3 times that of calves fed colostral products. Group-1 calves had significantly (P < 0.05) fewer episodes of disease during the first 30 days of life, compared with calves fed colostral-supplement products.

Clinical Implications

Commercially available colostral-supplement products are less efficient at providing immunoglobulin transfer and disease protection to newborn calves, compared with bovine colostrum, even when fed at equal volume and similar immunoglobulin concentration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To determine the suitability of a new colostrum substitute derived from goat serum and to determine the amount of colostral IgG needed to achieve serum IgG concentration > 800 mg/dl, twin kids from 14 does were fed colostrum or a colostrum substitute. The volume of colostrum or colostrum substitute fed was calculated so that half the kids in each group received IgG at a low dosage (1.5 g/kg of body weight) and the other half received IgG at a high dosage (3 g/kg). Kids were bottle fed the colostrum or colostrum substitute and then fed pooled goat's milk until 18 hours old, at which time they were allowed to nurse their dams. Does were milked manually every 2 hours after parturition until specific gravity of mammary secretions was < 1.02, the specific gravity of goat's milk. Serum IgG concentration of each kid was determined by means of single radial immunodiffusion at birth and 12, 18, and 24 hours and 7, 21, and 42 days after birth. Kids were weighed at each blood collection and monitored for illness daily.

None of the kids had measurable serum IgG concentrations at birth. Mean serum IgG concentration was significantly higher in kids fed colostrum than in kids fed colostrum substitute at all times, except days 7 and 42 (P < 0.05). By 24 hours after birth, serum IgG concentration was > 800 mg/dl in all kids fed colostrum, in 4 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the higher dosage, and in 2 of 7 kids fed the substitute at the lower dosage. Serum IgG concentration decreased in all kids during the first 21 days after birth, but was increased by 42 days. Mean body weight did not differ between groups; none of the kids became ill. Kids willingly suckled the colostrum and colostrum substitute, but the substitute had to be diluted with water because of its thick consistency.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association