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ultrasonography (40/41 [98%]), thoracic radiography (33/41 [80%]), FeLV and FIV tests (30/41 [73%]), and determination of serum cobalamin concentration (32/41 [78%]), serum folate concentration (27/41 [66%]), and serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (16/41 [39

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, proteins, fats, fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol, and cobalamin. 1 The ileocolic valve is a muscular sphincter that separates the distal ileum from the proximal colon and regulates the speed of intestinal transit. 1 It functions to control movement of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

), all diseased cats received a total dose of 1.5 mg/kg oral prednisolone divided into 2 daily doses. Weekly parenteral supplementation of cobalamin was administered if serum cobalamin concentration at T0 was in the low to normal range < 400 μg/L, with

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and/or Clinical Review Board at each institution. All cats were required to have a CBC, chemistry profile, serum cobalamin concentration, and urinalysis performed within 14 days of study

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with sugar solution), and fecal bacteriologic culture (for Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp). Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity and folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in 23 dogs (11 dogs in group A and 12 in group C). In the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole on the number and species of duodenal bacteria and selective nutrients of cats.

Animals—6 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was obtained for quantitative and qualitative bacterial culture to determine species and number of bacteria in healthy cats. Blood samples were assayed for taurine, total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations. Cats then were given metronidazole (20 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 1 month, after which bacterial cultures and serum assays of nutrients were repeated. Nine months after cessation of antibiotic treatment, duodenal bacteria were re-evaluated and serum was assayed for total protein, albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations.

Results—Oral administration of metronidazole caused a significant decrease in aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts in the duodenum of healthy cats, accompanied by emergence of Streptococcus spp and Corynebacterium spp. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and albumin increased when duodenal bacterial counts were decreased, although changes in folate or taurine concentrations were not detected. Measured variables did not differ, when comparing results obtained before and 9 months after cessation of metronidazole.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of metronidazole decreased the number of aerobic bacteria and altered indigenous flora in the small bowel of cats. Normal duodenal flora appeared to be stable, because species of bacteria were reestablished by 9 months after cessation of metronidazole. Bacterial flora appeared to have an impact on nutrients, because albumin and cobalamin increased during antibiotic administration and returned to preadministration concentrations after cessation of the antimicrobial. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1106–1112)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sixteen German Shepherd Dogs were found, via quantitative microbial culture of intestinal fluid samples, to have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (ibo) over an 11-month period. All dogs were deficient in serum IgA. Consistent clinical signs suggestive of an alimentary tract disorder were not observed. Serum cobalamin determinations were not helpful in detecting ibo. Serum folate concentrations had variable sensitivity and specificity for detecting dogs from which we could culture ≥ 1 × 105 bacteria/ml from intestinal fluid samples in the nonfed state. Histologic and intestinal mucosal cytologic examinations were not useful in detecting ibo. Substantial within-dog and between-dog variation was found in the numbers and species of bacteria in the intestines. The difficulty in diagnosing ibo, the variability in organisms found in individual dogs on repeated sampling, the likelihood that intestinal fluid microbial cultures failed to diagnose ibo in some dogs, and the potential of ibo to be clinically inapparent were the most important findings in this study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a colony environment predisposes healthy cats to high bacterial counts, including counts of obligate anaerobes, in the duodenum and whether increased numbers of bacteria could be found in the duodenum of cats with signs of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 healthy control cats (10 from a colony environment and 10 pet cats) and 19 cats with a history of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Undiluted duodenal fluid was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed by bacteriologic culture under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Serum concentrations of cobalamin and folate were also measured.

Results—Significant differences were not detected in the numbers of bacteria found in the duodenum of cats housed in a colony environment, compared with pet cats fed an identical diet prior to sampling. All healthy cats were, therefore, combined into 1 control group. Compared with healthy cats, cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease had significantly lower counts of microaerophilic bacteria, whereas total, anaerobic, and aerobic bacterial counts were not significantly different. None of the cats with disease had total bacterial counts higher than expected from the range established in the control cats. Differences were not detected in regard to serum folate or cobalamin concentrations between diseased and healthy cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings indicated that healthy colony cats and pet cats have high numbers of bacteria in the duodenum, including high numbers of obligate anaerobes. Our findings also suggest that bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine is not a common clinical syndrome in cats with chronic nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:48–51)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

brain energy metabolism was strongly suspected; therefore, serum analyses for cobalamin, folate, thiamine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations and feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity were performed. Results indicated severe cobalamin deficiency

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (sibo) was diagnosed by quantitative bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples obtained endoscopically in 41 of 80 dogs that were admitted with chronic diarrhea, vomiting, or weight loss. Thirteen dogs had aerobic bacterial overgrowth, most frequently comprising Escherichia coli, staphylococci, and enterococci, and 28 dogs had mixed anaerobic overgrowth, most frequently including Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. Affected dogs comprised 23 breeds, including 10 German Shepherd Dogs, and median age at diagnosis was 2 years (range, 6 months to 11 years). High serum folate and low serum cobalamin concentrations had fair specificity (79 and 87%, respectively), but low sensitivity (51 and 24%, respectively) in detecting sibo. Histologic examination of duodenal biopsy specimens did not reveal abnormalities (26/41 dogs), or revealed mild to moderate lymphocytic (12/41) or eosinophilic (2/41) infiltrates, or lymphosarcoma (1/41). Oral antibiotic treatment was effective in 77% (23/30 dogs), but prolonged treatment (> 4 weeks) was required to control signs and prevent recurrence in 50% (15/30). Corticosteroids were used alone in a dog with eosinophilic enteritis and in combination with antibiotics in 4 dogs with marked gastrointestinal lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates. This study suggested that sibo may be observed in dogs of many breeds, without an obvious primary cause, and that, although results of indirect tests may be suggestive of sibo, bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples remains necessary for definitive diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association