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dog 1 was mildly hyponatremic (137.2 mmol/L; reference range, 140 to 153 mmol/L) and had mild hypocalcemia (1.03 mmol of ionized calcium/L; reference range, 1.13 to 1.33 mmol of ionized calcium/L). Blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations were

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Recognition of the diverse shapes of various urine crystals is necessary for their accurate identification.

  • Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals most commonly have an octahedral or envelope shape.

  • Calcium ions and oxalic acid may form calcium oxalate crystals in urine.

  • Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystalluria is a risk factor for urolith formation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Calcium exists in 3 fractions within the body: protein bound, complexed, and ionized. 1 Ionized calcium is the biologically active form and accounts for approximately 50% of the total serum calcium. 1 , 2 Calcium homeostasis is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

increases serum concentrations of both calcium and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , which also has a crucial role in calcium homeostasis. 15,16 Oral and parenteral administrations of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and its metabolites (eg, 1,25[OH] 2 D 3 ) to dairy cows

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Diseases affecting mineral metabolism encompass a wide range of skeletal and soft tissue disorders related to alterations in the homeostasis of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In equids, these disorders may be broadly grouped as nutritional

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, but limited information exists on the role of calcium in the etiology of AP in dogs. Animal models show that hypercalcemia induces pancreatic injury via the development of an apical block (rat), premature activation of digestive zymogens (rat), and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was confirmed in 7 cats on the basis of results of urolith analysis performed at 1 of 2 diagnostic laboratories a,b and suspected in 12 cats on the basis of results of urinalysis, serum biochemical profile, radiographic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Calcium oxalate urolith formation occurs when urine is supersaturated with calcium and oxalate. 1 Hypercalciuria has not been well-defined in normocalcemic cats with calcium oxalate uroliths but may occur. Metabolic acidosis promotes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

decreasing IOP by medical and surgical methods. 8 In addition to standard medical agents, such as prostaglandin analogues, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, A 2 -receptor agonists, B blockers, and cholinergic agonists, use of calcium-channel blockers has also

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

for pet dogs was heightened in the 1990s when excessive calcium and energy intakes were implicated in developmental orthopedic disorders of large- and giant-breed dogs. 3–8 This discovery resulted in a modification of recommended calcium and energy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association