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locally. One of the main drawbacks of currently available local anesthetics is their duration of action, which generally is no longer than 8 to 12 hours. 6 However, a long-acting formulation of bupivacaine (liposomal encapsulated bupivacaine) has been

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Local bupivacaine infiltration in cats undergoing onychectomy has actually been shown to transiently increase pain scores at 2 hours after surgery, compared with local saline (0.9% NaCl) solution infiltration. 22 A recently published study 23 on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

perioperative pain. Bupivacaine is a popular local anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures such as stifle arthroplasty in dogs due to its long duration of action. A single perineural injection of 0.5% bupivacaine has been reported to provide analgesia

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

recently, retrobulbar nerve block techniques with bupivacaine were found to be effective for analgesia following enucleations. 4 The technique for performing a retrobulbar injection takes practice to master because there are risks associated with this

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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outcome measures to assess local nerve blocks affecting the oral cavity in dogs. 9 Lidocaine and bupivacaine are commonly used in veterinary practice as local anesthetics with shorter and longer durations of action, respectively. Mixtures of lidocaine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

levels of analgesia for humans and other animals undergoing castration or other types of testicular surgery. Human males undergoing testicular surgery for whom a local anesthetic drug (bupivacaine) is injected in the spermatic cord have less pain versus

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

,2 Local anesthetics such as bupivacaine have been shown to treat pain associated with TPLO when provided by epidural administration 1,3 or in the form of peripheral nerve blocks. 5–7,16 Peripheral nerve blocks have similar efficacy to that found for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(edge sharpening) and soft tissue (smoothing) algorithms. For RBA, injection of a mixture containing 0.75 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine g and 0.25 mL of radiographic contrast agent h was performed in accordance with guidelines described for cat cadavers. 26

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

infiltration (SII) with local anesthetics, most commonly bupivacaine, has been shown to be effective for 6 to 7 hours after administration in dogs. 15 , 16 In 2011, a liposomal bupivacaine injectable suspension was approved by the FDA for SII in people. This

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research