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represents the cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) data for a given antimicrobial drug–bacterial species–animal host combination over a specified time period (eg, 1 year) and population subset (eg, region, farm, or production class). 2 Whereas

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

for identification of bacteriuria is a positive result for quantitative bacterial culture of urine (≥ 10 3 CFUs of bacteria/mL) with concurrent antimicrobial susceptibility testing to optimize treatment and minimize development of antimicrobial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

medicine, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is not typically performed for BHS infections because no significant resistance has been noted to the first line therapy, penicillin, despite decades of use. Resistance to β-lactams, such as penicillin or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, intermediate, or resistant) of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests. 6 The objective of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to perform a standardized test that will consistently predict the expected therapeutic outcome. Results of in vitro

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

microbiological culture performed on a urine sample collected via cystocentesis remains the gold standard for diagnosis. 2 In ideal circumstances, antimicrobial susceptibility testing would be used to guide treatment of UTIs 1–4 ; however, the timeliness of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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with patient AST results and retrieving suppressed resistance data from the microbiology laboratory system. ABBREVIATIONS APCP Academic primary care practice AST Antimicrobial susceptibility testing CFU Colony-forming unit CLSI Clinical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, from which 128 farms had Campylobacter isolates available for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Herds were enrolled according to farm type (organic vs conventional) and by farm size (No. of lactating and nonlactating cows). To be included in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.6%]), profitability (29 [18.1%]), results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing are more rapidly available (29 [18.1%]), and lack of access to a good diagnostic laboratory (6 [3.7%]). Various specimens were cultured in different clinics ( Table 2 ). At some clinics

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the various collection methods in dogs and cats has been reported. 6 Because of the expense, veterinarians do not always submit urine for QABC and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Instead, empirical antimicrobial treatment is often started for a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

laboratory b for serotyping and phagetyping and to another laboratory c for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Isolation of E coli All fecal samples from the participating dogs were submitted for E coli culture at the Canadian Research

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research