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thrombophilia. 2 A study 2 in humans has revealed that exercise results in activation of coagulation and subsequent counter-regulation of the previously initiated coagulation reaction. Exercise-induced activation of the coagulation system is possibly caused by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

node, 21 and musculoskeletal tissues, 22 as well as lymphoma 21 and splenic hemangiosarcoma. 23 In isolated canine T-lymphoma cells, LHR activation resulted in dose-dependent cell proliferation 24 and increased LHR gene expression. 25 To the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

primarily a KOR agonist and MOR antagonist, provides no thermal antinociception under the same experimental conditions. 4 Additionally, both drugs cause profound respiratory depression in red-eared slider turtles. 4 Because morphine also activates DORs and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Platelet-activating factor (1- O -hexadecyl-2-acetyl sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a phospholipid produced by a variety of cells, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and endothelial cells. 1 Platelet-activating factor

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evidence of mitral valve prolapse reported in > 80% of CKCSs that are < 3 years old. 2 In all species, valvular heart disease has the potential to affect platelet activation or function as a result of turbulent high-velocity blood flow and fluid shear

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of muscle cells through exercise. 3 The ERK 1-2 plays a role in early exercise-induced changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. This system is activated by numerous extracellular cues, such as growth factors and hormones typically transduced

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

amounts of inflammatory cytokines following R equi infection. These mechanisms and those necessary for appropriate activation of phagocytes against R equi in the airways are poorly understood. Neutrophils are important cells of the innate immune

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

laminar tissues are similar to those in organs at risk of failure in humans with sepsis. 5,9 These changes include leukocyte and endothelial activation that results in induction of a number of proinflammatory mediators, which alter endothelial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

STAT-6), or Treg (TGF-β, IL-10, and Foxp3). As an example, IL-4 activates STAT-6 and GATA-3 through binding to its receptor on Th2 cells, leading to transcription of additional IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines, and at the same time production of IFN-γ is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-3 inflammation, 4-9 and gene expression and activation of MMPs. 10-13 Although these events have been studied by use of several methods, events have been most clearly defined for horses with black walnut–induced laminitis, in which 2 time points, the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research