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Abstract

Objective—To determine current population characteristics of, clinical findings in, and survival times for cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—260 cats with HCM.

Procedure—Information was obtained from the medical records. Cats were classified into 1 of 4 clinical groups (congestive heart failure [CHF] group, arterial thromboembolism [ATE] group, syncope group, or cats without clinical signs [subclinical group]) on the basis of the primary clinical signs at the initial examination.

Results—120 cats were classified in the CHF group, 43 in the ATE group, 10 in the syncope group, and 87 in the subclinical group. Antecedent events that may have precipitated CHF included IV fluid administration, anesthesia, surgery, and recent corticosteroid administration. Median survival time was 709 days (range, 2 to 4,418 days) for cats that survived > 24 hours. Cats in the subclinical group lived the longest (median survival time, 1,129 days; range, 2 to 3,778 days), followed by cats in the syncope group (654 days; range, 28 to 1,505 days), cats in the CHF group (563 days; range, 2 to 4,418 days), and cats in the ATE group (184 days; range, 2 to 2,278 days). Causes of death included ATE (n = 56), CHF (49), sudden death (13), and noncardiac causes (27). In univariate analyses, survival time was negatively correlated with left atrial size, age, right ventricular enlargement, and thoracentesis. Cats with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve lived longer than cats without this echocardiographic finding. In multivariate analyses, only age and left atrial size remained significant predictors of survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall survival time for cats with HCM was similar to earlier reports, survival times for cats with CHF or ATE were longer than previously reported. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:202–207)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cardiomyopathy (HCM). 2 Cardiomyopathy is a condition that alters the structure and function of cardiomyocytes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most commonly diagnosed form of cardiomyopathy in felids, accounting for 58% to 68% of cardiomyopathies in cats. 3

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

echocardiographic considerations aside, we believe that our results are consistent with the current understanding of the genetic and phenotypic diversity that characterizes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 4 It is accepted that HCM in human beings is a genetic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Transient myocardial thickening was considered; however, there was no antecedent event identified, and severe cardiac remodeling and concomitant arrhythmias in association with that disease entity in cats have not previously

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. However, several studies 1,2 have shown that cats with heart disease may not have murmurs on physical examination and, similarly, cats with murmurs may not have structural heart disease. Moreover, the early stages of HCM are extremely difficult to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

increased pulmonary opacity that is localized in the right caudal lung lobe (asterisk). Of the 61 dogs with PE, 51 (83.6%) had MVD, 9 (14.8%) had DCM, and 1 (1.6%) had HCM. A symmetric radiographic distribution of PE was observed in 40 (65.6%) dogs; 30

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

years. It did not take me long to conclude that cardiac disease, especially hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), is common in apparently normal cats and that cardiac disease should be considered in every cat that I see, with or without overt disease. I

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

underlying diseases (ie, ARVC, DCM, HCM, RCM, and UCM) via the Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA by ranks, with post hoc comparison between pairs performed with the Wilcoxon rank sum test (adjusted α level, P = 0.0125). Multivariate analysis was performed to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

importance of ANP, and correlations between plasma ANP concentration and heart failure have been identified in dogs and cats. However, conflicting findings exist in cats with HCM but no clinical signs of disease. In 1 study, 36 no significant difference in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association