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Upper respiratory tract (ie, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and trachea) disease in cats is among the most common causes of euthanasia in animal shelters 1 and represents a serious challenge to veterinarians managing the health of cats housed in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To monitor the prevailing viral respiratory tract infections in cattle after transportation to feedlots.

Animals

100 cattle with signs of respiratory tract disease on arrival at 2 feedlots.

Procedures

Nasal swab samples were obtained from each animal and were used for inoculation of defined cell culture systems that detected bovine viruses known to cause respiratory tract infections, as well as viruses previously not recognized as respiratory pathogens for cattle.

Results

Bovine respiratory coronaviruses were isolated from 38 of the 100 cattle, including 6 of 50 cattle from California, 22 of 31 cattle from Oklahoma, 6 of 11 cattle from Texas, and 4 of 8 cattle of unknown origin. Parainfluenza 3 viruses also were isolated from 4 California cattle, but other bovine viruses were not detected.

Clinical Implications

The high rate of coronavirus isolations from feedlot cattle with signs of respiratory tract disease implied wide distribution and high susceptibility among cattle to this infection, which had not been detected by use of viral isolation systems in previous etiologic evaluations of feedlot cattle affected with bovine respiratory disease complex. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208:1452-1455)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The concentration of soluble fibrinogen derivatives (sfd) and protease and procoagulant activities were determined in cell-free supernatants of equine respiratory secretions obtained from horses with chronic pulmonary disease. The concentration of neutrophils was estimated from direct smears of the secretions. Lung specimens and smears of the secretions were evaluated for the presence of fibrin or fibrinogen by use of immunohistochemical methods.

Thirty-five of 80 specimens tested contained sfd. Respiratory secretions from horses with moderate or severe chronic pulmonary disease contained sfd more frequently than did secretions from mildly affected horses (P < 0.05). Respiratory secretions with vast numbers of neutrophils had significantly (P < 0.05) higher sfd concentrations than respiratory secretions with fewer neutrophils. Protease and procoagulant activities in respiratory secretion specimens were positively correlated with neutrophil content, clinical diagnosis, and sfd concentration.

Immunohistochemically, macrophages that stained for fibrin or fibrinogen were observed in direct smears of respiratory secretions from horses with moderate and severe chronic small airway disease, but not in smears from mildly affected horses. Fibrin or fibrinogen was detected in a few thickened alveolar septa from 10 horses with moderate or severe chronic small airway disease, but not in lungs from horses with mild or no evidence of chronic small airway disease. Fibrin or fibrinogen was detected in alveolar septa, granulomas, and on alveolar macrophages in lungs of all horses with chronic granulomatous and chronic bronchointerstitial pneumonia.

The presence of sfd in equine respiratory secretions may be an indicator of pulmonary inflammation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

contemporary CIV was isolated that same year. In mid February 2007, there was an outbreak of respiratory disease in dogs at a humane shelter. The outbreak involved all 27 dogs housed at the shelter at the time. Clinical signs included fever, lethargy, coughing

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common disease affecting shelter- and group-housed cats and is therefore an important welfare concern. 2–4 Such infections cause considerable illness and can be fatal even with treatment, particularly in

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the apparent molecular weight for 24 ruminant respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of the phosphoprotein (P protein).

Procedure

29 bovine RSV (BRSV), 20 of which were not previously tested, 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates were selected for determination of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein. Virus radiolabeled with [35S]methionine was immunoprecipitated with polyclonal antiserum to BRSV and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Results

On the basis of apparent molecular size of the P protein, all isolates could be categorized into 2 electropherotypes, low molecular size of 36 kd and high molecular size of 38 kd. Twenty-three BRSV, the 3 ovine RSV, and 1 caprine RSV isolates had a high molecular size P protein; 6 BRSV isolates had a low molecular size P protein.

Conclusions

The apparent molecular size of the P protein of the ruminant RSV strains is greater than that of the human RSV subgroups, providing further evidence of their distinctiveness. Whether categorization of electrophoretic mobility of the P protein of BRSV underlies distinct antigenic subgroups, as it does in human RSV, requires further antigenic and genetic analysis.

Clinicai Relevance

Antigenic subgroups of ruminant RSV may have relevance in the development of new vaccines for control of the disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:478–481)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

greatest within shelter environments. In shelters, there is sometimes rapid turnover of large numbers of cats with variable vaccination and immune statuses and which are kept in conditions known to exacerbate shedding of some infectious respiratory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of the ergot alkaloid ergovaline with effects of ergotamine on blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature in conscious sheep.

Animals—3 sheep with indwelling arterial catheters.

Procedure—Ergotamine and ergovaline were injected IV (20 nmol/kg), and their effects on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and pattern, body temperature, and skeletal muscle electromyographic activity were compared with control values obtained following injections of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or acetone.

Results—Both ergopeptides caused immediate and significant increases in blood pressure (50 to 75 mm Hg) without concomitant increases in heart rate. Ergovaline but not ergotamine significantly increased pulse pressure (35 mm Hg). Both ergopeptides resulted in decreased respiratory rate and increased respiratory depth within the first hour of administration. Body temperature was decreased slightly upon ergopeptide administration but continued to increase thereafter, with greater increases developing with ergovaline than with ergotamine. Increased body temperatures of 3.0 to 3.5 C were maintained for at least 10 hours. Respiratory rate was increased to rates as high as 210 to 220 breaths/min in association with hyperthermia. Ergopeptides had no effect on skeletal muscle electromyographic activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In sheep, ergovaline has similar effects to ergotamine on cardiovascular and pulmonary function and body temperature but is more potent. These effects are consistent with clinical signs observed in the toxicoses developed when ruminants ingest grass with high concentrations of ergopeptides. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:387–393)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To perform respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays on canine skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and establish reference range values of skeletal muscle enzyme activities for dogs.

Sample Population—Biopsy specimens from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 24 dogs (8 sexually intact males and 14 sexually intact females) ranging from 15 months to 6 years of age.

Procedure—Mean values of citrate synthase, cytochrome-c oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase, and NADH dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase activities were established by use of 6 standard spectrophotometric assays for respiratory chain enzyme analysis.

Results—Compared with published data for skeletal muscle enzyme activities in humans, skeletal muscle enzyme activities in dogs were 2- to 4-fold higher. Additionally, citrate synthase activity, a marker for mitochondrial volume, was positively correlated with age in dogs, suggesting that mitochondrial volume increases with age, although no apparent change in respiratory chain enzymatic activity with an increase in age was found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference range values for skeletal muscle enzyme activities of dogs are needed to accurately interpret results of respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays. During investigation of metabolic myopathies, if skeletal muscle biopsy specimens are evaluated for respiratory chain enzyme kinetics, they should be performed and evaluated in concert with skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from clinically normal animals of the same species. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:480–484)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research