Search Results

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 975 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

SUMMARY

A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In 33 healthy dogs, 66 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the right and left caudal lung lobes were analyzed for volume of return, cellularity, differential cellularity, and immunophenotypic lymphocyte subpopulations. Lavage return was 64.8% (mean) following 3 sequential 25-ml lavages, for a total lavage volume of 75 ml. With this technique, 21.1 × 106 cells/sample (mean) were obtained. The cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage samples, in decreasing order of frequency, were alveolar macrophages (79.4%), lymphocytes (13.5%), eosinophils (3.6%), mast cells (2.1%), epithelial cells (0.8%), and neutrophils (0.6%). Mean alveolar lymphocyte subpopulation frequencies, determined in 18 samples, for pan T, CD4, and CD8 cells were 52, 21.9, and 17.8%, respectively, with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 1.3. Variables analyzed did not vary between right and left caudal lung lobes, nor were they affected by body weight.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine results of surgery for treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs and to identify prognostic variables that can be used to predict outcome.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

Dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas that had surgical treatment only.

Procedure

Records were examined for clinically relevant data. Histologic samples were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by physical examination or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.

Results

75 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities were identified. Median age was 10.6 years. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were of a significantly lower grade than other tumors. Tumors recurred locally in 11 of 75 (15%) dogs. Evaluation for lack of tumor cells at surgical margins was prognostic for local recurrence. Metastatic disease developed in 13 of 75 (17%) dogs. Tumor mitotic rate was prognostic for development of metastasis. Twenty-five of 75 (33%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Percentage of tumor necrosis and tumor mitotic rate were prognostic for survival time. Median survival time was 1,416 days.

Clinical Implications

On the basis of a low local recurrence rate and high median survival time, wide excision of tumor margins or radical surgery appeared to be an effective means for managing soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities. Analysis of histologic characteristics for prognosis supported use of preoperative biopsy. Surgical margins should be evaluated, and early use of aggressive surgery is indicated in the management of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1147–1151)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine associations between clinical and histologic factors in dogs with primary lung tumors and outcome and to develop a histologic grading method for primary lung tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

67 dogs undergoing thoracotomy and lobectomy for primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records and histologic sections were reviewed to evaluate factors of prognostic importance. Association of these factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time was evaluated, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI and survival time were determined, using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

Results

Clinical and histologic factors significantly associated with prognosis were histologic score, detection of clinical signs, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. On the basis of histologic score, a histologic grading method was developed. Dogs with well-differentiated tumors had significantly longer survival time and DFI (median DFI, 493 days) than dogs with moderately (median DFI, 191 days) or poorly (median DFI, 0 days) differentiated tumors. Dogs with clinical signs or metastasis to regional lymph nodes had shorter survival times and DFI than dogs in which lung masses were discovered as an incidental finding.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with well-differentiated, nonmetastasized, primary lung tumors that do not have clinical signs associated with the tumor have a favorable prognosis. Dogs with more advanced disease or aggressive tumors histologically may require treatment, such as chemotherapy in combination with surgery. The grading method proposed here for primary lung tumors may be useful in other dogs with primary lung tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1422–1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether apparently resting dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies have increased resting energy expenditure (REE), compared with clinically normal dogs.

Animals

46 client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 30 client-owned dogs that were clinically normal.

Procedure

Apparently resting, client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies before (n = 46) and 4 to 6 weeks after (n = 30) surgical removal of tumors were compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). An open flow indirect calorimetry system was used to determine the following: rate of oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg of body weight); rate of carbon dioxide production (mls/min/kg), REE (kcal/kg/d), and respiratory quotient. Because of the wide range of body weight, REE and oxygen consumption were also expressed per kg of body weight0.75.

Results

Surgical removal of the tumor did not significantly alter any of the variables measured when all dogs with tumors were assessed as a single group, or when the dogs were divided on the basis of having the following types of tumors: carcinomas and sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and mammary adenocarcinomas. None of the data obtained prior to surgical treatment from any of the dogs grouped by tumor type were significantly different from clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions

REE (54.4 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 125 ± 19 kcal/kg0.75/d) and, presumably, caloric requirements of dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies are not significantly different from those obtained from clinically normal dogs (53.9 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 116 ± 32 kcal/kg0.75/d). Furthermore, these variables do not change significantly when the tumor is excised and the dog is reassessed after 4 to 6 weeks.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge that REE in dogs with solid tumors is not significantly different from REE of clinically normal dogs may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1463-1467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine energy expenditure (EE) of apparently resting, client-owned dogs with malignant or nonmalignant diseases that were recovering from anesthesia and surgery, and compare those values with values from clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs.

Animals

40 apparently resting, client-owned dogs that had been given general anesthesia for various elective and nonelective surgical procedures, and 30 apparently resting, clinically normal client-owned dogs used as controls.

Procedure

EE was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system. Each dog was evaluated before and after surgery (0, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, then at suture removal > 14 days later) and compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). Parameters evaluated were rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2 /kg of body weight: ml/min/kg; Vo2 /kg0.75: ml/min/kg0.75), EE (EE/kg: kcal/kg/d; EE/kg0.75: kcal/kg0.75/d), and respiratory quotient.

Results

Surgery and anesthesia did not significantly alter any of these parameters at any time assessed in any group. The pretreatment Vo. and EE were significantly lower in the dogs with cancer, compared with dogs of other groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that the EE of a re-stricted group of dogs that undergo anesthesia and surgery for malignant and nonmalignant conditions does not increase from baseline values or when compared with values in clinically normal, client-owned dogs.

Clinical Relevance

This information may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs recovering from anesthesia and surgery. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1321-1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research