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Abstract

Objective—To determine toxic effects of streptozocin given in combination with a diuresis protocol in dogs and establish whether streptozocin is efficacious in treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, tumor stage and staging tests performed, number of streptozocin treatments, adverse effects, results of biochemical and hematologic monitoring during streptozocin treatment, tumor dimensions, duration of normoglycemia, and date of death, when applicable. Dogs were compared with a historical control group of 15 dogs treated surgically and medically.

Results—58 treatments were administered to the 17 dogs. Only 1 dog developed azotemia. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity increased in some dogs but decreased when treatment was discontinued. Hematologic toxicoses were rare. Vomiting during administration was uncommon but occasionally severe. Two dogs developed diabetes mellitus after receiving 5 doses. Median duration of normoglycemia for 14 dogs with stage-II or -III insulinoma treated with streptozocin was 163 days (95% confidence interval, 16 to 309 days), which was not significantly different from that for the control dogs (90 days; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 426 days). Two dogs had rapid resolution of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy, and 2 others had measurable reductions in tumor size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that streptozocin can be administered safely to dogs at a dosage of 500 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks when combined with a protocol for induction of diuresis and may be efficacious in the treatment of dogs with metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:811–818)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare erythrocyte recovery by a cell salvage device between swab-washing by manual agitation or filtration.

SAMPLE

12 recently expired units of canine packed RBCs.

PROCEDURE

The packed RBC units underwent quality analysis before donation from a pet blood bank. Each unit was volume-expanded with anticoagulant and subsequently divided into 2 equal aliquots used to soak surgical swabs before washing. Two different swab-washing techniques were evaluated—standard swab-washing–manual agitation (SW-MA) and swab-washing–filtration (SW-F)—with a novel prototype device. The resulting bloody fluid was processed using the Cell Saver Elite Autotransfusion System (Haemonetics). The volume, manual PCV, CBC, and RBC mass, calculated as the product of the volume and PCV, were measured before and after salvaging. Last, the RBC mass recovery was recorded as a percentage.

RESULTS

The RBC mass recovered from SW-MA and SW-F averaged 85.73% and 83.99%, respectively. There was no significant difference in RBC recovery between the 2 methods (P = .52).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SW-MA and SW-F recovered a similar quantity of RBCs from blood-soaked swabs in an ex vivo setting.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine results of surgery for treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs and to identify prognostic variables that can be used to predict outcome.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

Dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas that had surgical treatment only.

Procedure

Records were examined for clinically relevant data. Histologic samples were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained by physical examination or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.

Results

75 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities were identified. Median age was 10.6 years. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were of a significantly lower grade than other tumors. Tumors recurred locally in 11 of 75 (15%) dogs. Evaluation for lack of tumor cells at surgical margins was prognostic for local recurrence. Metastatic disease developed in 13 of 75 (17%) dogs. Tumor mitotic rate was prognostic for development of metastasis. Twenty-five of 75 (33%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Percentage of tumor necrosis and tumor mitotic rate were prognostic for survival time. Median survival time was 1,416 days.

Clinical Implications

On the basis of a low local recurrence rate and high median survival time, wide excision of tumor margins or radical surgery appeared to be an effective means for managing soft-tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremities. Analysis of histologic characteristics for prognosis supported use of preoperative biopsy. Surgical margins should be evaluated, and early use of aggressive surgery is indicated in the management of soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1147–1151)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether apparently resting dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies have increased resting energy expenditure (REE), compared with clinically normal dogs.

Animals

46 client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 30 client-owned dogs that were clinically normal.

Procedure

Apparently resting, client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies before (n = 46) and 4 to 6 weeks after (n = 30) surgical removal of tumors were compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). An open flow indirect calorimetry system was used to determine the following: rate of oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg of body weight); rate of carbon dioxide production (mls/min/kg), REE (kcal/kg/d), and respiratory quotient. Because of the wide range of body weight, REE and oxygen consumption were also expressed per kg of body weight0.75.

Results

Surgical removal of the tumor did not significantly alter any of the variables measured when all dogs with tumors were assessed as a single group, or when the dogs were divided on the basis of having the following types of tumors: carcinomas and sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and mammary adenocarcinomas. None of the data obtained prior to surgical treatment from any of the dogs grouped by tumor type were significantly different from clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions

REE (54.4 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 125 ± 19 kcal/kg0.75/d) and, presumably, caloric requirements of dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies are not significantly different from those obtained from clinically normal dogs (53.9 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 116 ± 32 kcal/kg0.75/d). Furthermore, these variables do not change significantly when the tumor is excised and the dog is reassessed after 4 to 6 weeks.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge that REE in dogs with solid tumors is not significantly different from REE of clinically normal dogs may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1463-1467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine energy expenditure (EE) of apparently resting, client-owned dogs with malignant or nonmalignant diseases that were recovering from anesthesia and surgery, and compare those values with values from clinically normal, apparently resting, client-owned dogs.

Animals

40 apparently resting, client-owned dogs that had been given general anesthesia for various elective and nonelective surgical procedures, and 30 apparently resting, clinically normal client-owned dogs used as controls.

Procedure

EE was determined, using an open-flow indirect calorimetry system. Each dog was evaluated before and after surgery (0, 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, then at suture removal > 14 days later) and compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). Parameters evaluated were rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2 /kg of body weight: ml/min/kg; Vo2 /kg0.75: ml/min/kg0.75), EE (EE/kg: kcal/kg/d; EE/kg0.75: kcal/kg0.75/d), and respiratory quotient.

Results

Surgery and anesthesia did not significantly alter any of these parameters at any time assessed in any group. The pretreatment Vo. and EE were significantly lower in the dogs with cancer, compared with dogs of other groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that the EE of a re-stricted group of dogs that undergo anesthesia and surgery for malignant and nonmalignant conditions does not increase from baseline values or when compared with values in clinically normal, client-owned dogs.

Clinical Relevance

This information may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs recovering from anesthesia and surgery. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1321-1326)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine associations between clinical and histologic factors in dogs with primary lung tumors and outcome and to develop a histologic grading method for primary lung tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

67 dogs undergoing thoracotomy and lobectomy for primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records and histologic sections were reviewed to evaluate factors of prognostic importance. Association of these factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time was evaluated, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI and survival time were determined, using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

Results

Clinical and histologic factors significantly associated with prognosis were histologic score, detection of clinical signs, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. On the basis of histologic score, a histologic grading method was developed. Dogs with well-differentiated tumors had significantly longer survival time and DFI (median DFI, 493 days) than dogs with moderately (median DFI, 191 days) or poorly (median DFI, 0 days) differentiated tumors. Dogs with clinical signs or metastasis to regional lymph nodes had shorter survival times and DFI than dogs in which lung masses were discovered as an incidental finding.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with well-differentiated, nonmetastasized, primary lung tumors that do not have clinical signs associated with the tumor have a favorable prognosis. Dogs with more advanced disease or aggressive tumors histologically may require treatment, such as chemotherapy in combination with surgery. The grading method proposed here for primary lung tumors may be useful in other dogs with primary lung tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1422–1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

We evaluated the development of nephrotoxicosis in 64 dogs with malignant neoplasia given cisplatin during 4-hour saline solution diuresis. Cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface area, iv, q 21 d) was given to 8 dogs once, 22 dogs twice, 9 dogs 3 times, and 25 dogs 4 times. For each treatment, cisplatin was given over a 20-minute period after saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered iv for 3 hours at a rate of 25 ml/kg/h. After cisplatin infusion, saline solution diuresis was continued at the same rate for 1 hour. Before each treatment with cisplatin, the dogs were evaluated by conducting a physical examination, cbc, and analysis of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, and in most cases, serum phosphorus concentration and urine specific gravity were determined. Exogenous creatinine clearance also was evaluated in 8 dogs prior to 1 (n = 8), 2 (n = 8), 3 (n = 6), and 4 (n = 4) treatments. Five (7.8%) of 64 dogs developed clinically evident renal disease after two (n = 3) and three (n = 2) doses of cisplatin. Two of the 5 dogs had preexisting diseases of the urinary tract prior to the start of treatment. Survival time in dogs that developed renal disease (median, 114 days; range, 26 to 273 days) was similar to that of all dogs in this study (median, 145 days; range, 5 to 586 days), with 30 dogs still alive at the conclusion of the study. Three of the 5 dogs that developed renal disease were alive at the conclusion of the study, 1 died of tumor-related causes, and another died as a direct result of nephrotoxicosis. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in median neutrophil counts and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in median creatinine concentrations prior to the third and fourth treatments, compared with pretreatment values. Therefore, the 4-hour saline solution diuresis protocol used in this study to administer up to 4 doses of cisplatin appeared to be effective in preventing clinically apparent nephrotoxicosis in dogs with tumors and without preexisting urinary tract disease.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

A study was undertaken to determine the effect chemotherapy had when used to treat 45 dogs with measurable metastatic osteosarcoma. The primary tumor was histologically confirmed as an osteosarcoma in each case. Thirty-nine dogs had the primary tumor surgically removed. Twenty-four of these dogs were treated adjunctively with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 6 doses) prior to the onset of metastasis. The remaining 6 dogs from which the primary tumor was not surgically removed were diagnosed as having metastatic osteosarcoma in addition to the primary tumor on initial examination.

The median time from initial examination until the development of metastatic disease was 115 days (range, 27 to 1,199 days). The location of the metastatic disease was lungs (31 dogs), bone (3 dogs), soft tissue (1 dog), and multiple sites including lungs, bone, and soft tissue sites (10 dogs). The metastatic lesions were confirmed by pretreatment biopsy (n = 8) or cytologic evaluation (n = 2) in 10 cases and at necropsy in 27 cases. The remaining 8 cases were diagnosed radiographically as multiple metastatic lesions in the lungs consistent with metastatic osteosarcoma.

The metastatic disease was treated with cisplatin in 31 dogs (70 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 4 doses), doxorubicin in 11 dogs (30 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 3 doses), and mitoxantrone in 3 dogs (5 mg/m2, IV, q 3 weeks; median 2 doses, range 1 to 3 doses). Eight dogs that had metastatic disease treated with cisplatin were also given doxorubicin; 2 dogs treated with either doxorubicin or mitoxantrone were treated subsequently with cisplatin. The extent of neoplastic disease was determined immediately before the first dose of chemotherapy, and then every 3 to 6 weeks thereafter unless the dog had signs compatible with progressive disease, in which case, an evaluation was done more frequently. Each dog was treated with one chemotherapeutic agent until the dog developed progressive disease, or until the dog's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian. One dog treated with doxorubicin achieved partial remission. The duration of the partial remission was 21 days, and the lesion was confirmed to be osteosarcoma on necropsy 159 days after the metastatic disease was diagnosed. The median survival time of the other 44 dogs that did not respond to treatment from the time the metastatic disease was diagnosed was 61 days (range, 14 to 192 days). Cisplatin, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone chemotherapy appear to be ineffective for the treatment of measurable metastatic osteosarcoma in the dog.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association