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. B—In a cross-section of the heart midway between the base and apex, the myocardium is pale pink to tan, with multiple irregularly shaped and poorly demarcated hemorrhages. LV = Left ventricle. RV = Right ventricle. Bar = 1 cm. Formulate

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mm/s; 1 cm = 1 mV. Figure 2— M-mode echocardiograms (with the ultrasound probe directed through the right and left ventricles at the mitral valve level) obtained from the dog in Figure 1 . A—At the initial examination, undulations are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, subcutaneous tissue, and liver. Other affected sites include lungs, kidneys, oral cavity, muscles, bones, urinary bladder, intestines, pulmonary arteries, aorta, left ventricle, uterus, prostate, and peritoneum. 2,4 In the dog of the present report, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the tunicae media and intima. Additionally, high intracavitary forces generated by a hypertrophied left ventricle (particularly one affected by an outflow tract obstruction) may compress the microcirculation and cause the subendocardial layers to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

2 conditions are different. 2,11,12 For the cat of this report, echocardiography was subsequently performed and revealed mild dilation of the left ventricle, which was assessed as likely secondary to the low heart rate, but all other cardiac

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-axis and long-axis right parasternal images of the left ventricle were used to measure end-diastolic thickness of the interventricular septum and posterior wall. In the short-axis plane, end of diastole was defined by the onset of the QRS complex in a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

deflection of this point is indicative of subendocardial ischemia of the left ventricle. 8,9 Hypothyroidism has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis in dogs. 10 Because of the dog's dry skin, dull coat, and overweight body condition, thyroid gland

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and right bundle branch block. Echocardiography was performed and revealed mild mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation. The left ventricle was slightly dilated in both systole and diastole and had

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. C—This image shows another view of the large aberrant fluid-filled structure (arrow) and pericardial fluid in the pericardial space. Ao = Aorta. LA = Left atrium. LV = Left ventricle. RA = right atrium. RV = Right ventricle. The echogenic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ventricle in systole, thickness of the left ventricle in diastole, right atrial dilation, thickness of pericardium, presence of septal bounce, and > 25% respiratory variation in the transmitral inflow velocity. Histopathology of the pericardium was reviewed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association