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prior to the start of the assigned treatment. MWA-NP A caudal ventral abdominal incision was created, and MWA-NP was performed with the antenna inserted directly into the prostate gland after it was exposed by laparotomy. Ultrasonography was used

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

diagnostic test results, an exploratory laparotomy was recommended to rule out and potentially treat a foreign body obstruction. The tiger was placed in dorsal recumbency, the ventral abdomen was clipped and aseptically prepared using chlorhexidine and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

anesthetized horses that required exploratory laparotomy to aid in the management of gastrointestinal tract disease. We hypothesized that lidocaine disposition would be influenced by the systemic effects of gastrointestinal tract disease and result in decreased

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • Uterine torsion in pregnant mares generally occurs during the later stages of gestation.

  • Uterine torsion causes signs of abdominal pain that may be mistaken for gastrointestinal tract obstruction; however, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, such as small intestinal incarceration or large colon torsion, can occur in conjunction with uterine torsion.

  • Correction of torsion of the uterus may involve a rolling technique, flank laparotomy, or ventral midline celiotomy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare physiologic and analgesic effects of morphine when given by IV constant-rate infusion or by IM injection to dogs undergoing laparotomy and to determine pharmacokinetics of morphine in dogs following IV constant-rate infusion.

Design—Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs undergoing laparotomy were treated with morphine beginning at the time of anesthetic induction. Morphine was administered by IV infusion (0.12 mg/kg/h [0.05 mg/lb/h] of body weight) or by IM injection (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) at induction and extubation and every 4 hours thereafter. Treatments continued for 24 hours after extubation.

Results—Blood gas values did not indicate clinically significant respiratory depression in either group, and degree of analgesia (determined as the University of Melbourne Pain Scale score) and incidence of adverse effects (panting, vomiting, defecation, and dysphoria) were not significantly different between groups. Dogs in both groups had significant decreases in mean heart rate, rectal temperature, and serum sodium and potassium concentrations, compared with preoperative values. Mean ± SEM total body clearance of morphine was 68 ± 6 ml/min/kg (31 ± 3 ml/min/lb). Mean steady-state serum morphine concentration in dogs receiving morphine by constant-rate infusion was 30 ± 2 ng/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of morphine as a constantrate IV infusion at a dose of 0.12 mg/kg/h induced effects similar to those obtained with administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg, IM, every 4 hours in dogs undergoing laparotomy. Panting was attributed to an opioidinduced resetting of the hypothalamic temperature set point, rather than respiratory depression. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:884–891)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome of and prognostic indicators for dogs and cats with pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs and 11 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats with radiographic evidence of pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, previous medical problems, initial complaint, duration of illness, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, laboratory abnormalities, abdominocentesis results, bacterial culture results, concurrent diseases, hospitalization time, and outcome. Abdominal radiographs were reviewed, and radiographic severity of pneumoperitoneum was classified. For those animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy, time from admission to surgery and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens were recorded.

Results—24 (44%) animals survived and were discharged from the hospital, but none of the variables examined was associated with whether animals survived. Rupture of the gastrointestinal tract was the cause of pneumoperitoneum in 40 animals. However, cause and location of gastrointestinal tract rupture was not associated with whether animals survived. Twenty-three of 40 (58%) animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy survived, compared with only 1 of 14 animals that did not undergo surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats without any history of penetrating trauma is most commonly associated with rupture of the gastrointestinal tract and requires immediate surgical intervention. Even when appropriate treatment is instituted, the shortterm prognosis is only fair. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:251–255)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report perioperative characteristics and outcome following bilateral, single-session, laparoscopic adrenalectomy (BSSLA) in dogs.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 6).

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed and perioperative data collected, including preoperative diagnostic imaging, operative details, complications, and need for conversion to open laparotomy. Bilateral, single-session, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed on the right or left side with a standard 3- or 4-portal transperitoneal technique. The dog was repositioned to contralateral recumbency, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was repeated. Follow-up information was collected by telephone interviews with the owners and/or referring veterinarian.

RESULTS

Median age and weight of dogs were 126 months and 14.75 kg, respectively. Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) was performed in all dogs. Median maximal tumor diameter was 2.6 and 2.3 cm for the right and left-sided tumors, respectively. Median surgical and anesthesia times were 158 and 240 minutes, respectively. Conversion to open laparotomy was performed in 1 dog following renal vein laceration during initial adrenalectomy. Left adrenalectomy and ureteronephrectomy were performed, and the right adrenal tumor was left in situ. Cardiac arrest occurred in 1 dog following initial adrenalectomy (left); however, the dog was resuscitated successfully, and contralateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed without complication. All dogs survived to hospital discharge. Follow-up ranged from 60 to 730 days (median, 264 days) for dogs that successfully underwent BSSLA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

BSSLA was associated with favorable outcomes in this cohort of dogs. Laparoscopy may be considered in dogs with bilateral, modestly sized, noninvasive adrenal tumors.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 2.8-kg (6.1-lb) 4-month-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of bilateral, subcutaneous lumbar masses that were presumed to be the kidneys.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings included 2 mobile, nonpainful, 3×3-cm, bilaterally symmetric masses in the dorsolateral lumbar region. Abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and CT confirmed bilateral body wall defects with renal herniation. Serum biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and excretory urography confirmed normal renal function.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy, reduction of the kidneys, repair of the body wall defects, bilateral nephropexy, and ovariohysterectomy were performed. There were no perioperative complications.

Clinical Relevance—Lumbar hernia has not been reported previously in a cat. It is important for veterinarians to be aware that although rare, lumbar hernia should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for a lumbar mass or signs of chronic lumbar pain in cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Nephrotomography and ultrasonography were used in 11 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism to assess the value of these techniques for the localization of biochemically diagnosed hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors. Both techniques enabled accurate localization of a unilateral adrenal mass in each of the dogs. Cross-sectional diameters of the masses ranged from 1 to 4 cm. In 1 dog, expansion of tumor into the caudal vena cava was revealed by caudal venacavography and ultrasonography. Mineralization in the tumor mass in 2 dogs was easily recognized by nephrotomography, but not by ultrasonography.

Paracostal laparotomy confirmed the presence of an adrenocortical tumor in each dog, and expansion of tumor into the caudal vena cava in 1 dog. Cross-sectional diameters of the tumors ranged from 1.2 to 4.5 cm and corresponded well with cross-sectional measurements by nephrotomography and ultrasonography.

It was concluded that nephrotomography and ultrasonography have similar diagnostic accuracies for the detection and localization of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical, clinicopathologic, and imaging findings in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia and to compare the histologic grade of lymphangiectasia with clinicopathologic and imaging abnormalities.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with a histologic diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, results of exploratory laparotomy, and clinicopathologic, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and histologic findings.

Results—Mean age of dogs was 8.3 years; the most common clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, and weight loss. Abnormal physical examination findings included dehydration, ascites, and signs of pain on palpation of the abdomen. The most notable clinicopathologic findings were low serum ionized calcium concentration and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 12 dogs and revealed intestinal abnormalities in 8 dogs and peritoneal effusion in 7 dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed abnormalities in 9 of 16 dogs including thickened small intestine, dilated lacteals, lymphadenopathy, and adhesions. On histologic examination of the small intestine, concurrent inflammation was observed in 15 of 17 dogs, crypt ectasia in 5 of 17, and lipogranulomas in 2 of 17.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestinal lymphangiectasia in dogs appears to be a heterogeneous disorder characterized by various degrees of panhypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolemia, lymphocytopenia, and imaging abnormalities. In most dogs, the severity of hypoalbuminemia appears to offer the best correlation with severity of histologic lesions of lymphangiectasia. Imaging abnormalities are common in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia but are not specific enough to differentiate this disorder from other gastrointestinal disorders, nor are they predictive of histologic severity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:197–202)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association