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combination of the primary oxidative effect and the secondary inflammatory response induced by damaged hepatocytes. 13 Tumor necrosis factor α is directly toxic to hepatocytes and induces apoptosis. 14 Interleukin-1β and IL-6 reduce hepatocyte protein

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Prostaglandin E 2 IL Interleukin TIMP Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase iNOS Inducible nitric oxide synthase COX Cyclooxygenase mPGEs1 Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 FBS Fetal bovine serum GLN-CS Glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

should be investigated. ABBREVIATIONS ACS Autologous conditioned serum IL Interleukin IL-1Ra IL-1 receptor antagonist GAG Glycosaminoglycan PG Prostaglandin SOFG Safranin-O fast green a. Frisbie DD, Al-Sobayil F, Billinghurst

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

glycocalyx HA Hyaluronic acid IL Interleukin MFI Mean fluorescence intensity TADFV Total administered daily fluid volume Footnotes a. ABL800 FLEX, Radiometer Canada, London, ON, Canada. b. AirLife reduced heparin arterial blood sampler

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

disease. A bbreviations A 2A R Adenosine 2A receptor COX-2 Cyclooxygenase-2 CT Number of cycles to threshold CUO Colic of unknown origin IL Interleukin IL-1RA Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist LPS Lipopolysaccharide MCP-3 Monocyte

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cartilage catabolism 26 and suppressors of synthesis of new cartilage matrix. 27 Interleukin-1 and TNF-α strongly induce IL-8 production in a broad range of cells. 28–32 The chemokine IL-8 is chemotactic for neutrophils and T lymphocytes 29,33 and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cytokines and growth factors. 29 Interleukin-6 is induced in inflamed synovial tissue, and treatment with soluble IL-6 receptor has been shown to ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis in people. 32 Interleukin-6 is also produced by equine chondrocytes and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

postoperative radiographic osteoarthritis scores over time than in dogs receiving the CF. Interleukin-1β plays a central role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis in people by inducing increased activity of proteolytic enzymes involved in cartilage

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concentrations, evaluation of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein II as an inflammatory mediator of interest, and performing complete and differential WBC counts. Abbreviations IL Interleukin LPS Lipopolysaccharide MCP Metacarpophalangeal TGF

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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meniscal injuries and osteoarthritis in horses. 13 Equine MSCs demonstrate immunomodulatory effects through inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and induction of interleukin (IL)-10. 17 In rabbit ocular models, MSCs have been shown to accelerate corneal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research