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antimicrobials (products and doses not recorded) by the owner prior to presentation at the teaching hospital. Physical examination findings All fractures were closed with no evidence of skin or hoof wall penetration, and there was no radiographic evidence

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

rotation of the third phalanx relative to the hoof wall). An a priori sample size estimation indicated that approximately 200 PEAL cases and 400 controls were required on the basis of a significance level of 5%, statistical power of 80%, an OR of 2 for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-month period. For each limb, a vitamin E capsule was taped to the lateral aspect of the hoof, and the hoof was positioned with the dorsal hoof wall facing downward and the toe facing toward the gantry. The DIPJ of each limb was scanned at room

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

basement membrane in hoof wall growth. Given the controversy surrounding the importance of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of laminitis, it was also interesting to note that of all examined collagen type VII–degrading MMPs, only amounts of total and also active

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, which had a randomized, crossover design. Inclusion criteria included a clinical diagnosis of bilateral forelimb laminitis of at least 3 months' duration, with radiographic confirmation of displacement of the distal phalanx relative to the hoof wall in 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Blocks of laminar tissue (approx 15 × 10 mm) were obtained by sharp dissection from the proximal and distal aspect of the dorsal portion of the hoof wall. Specimens were cut in halves and fixated in formaldehyde (4%) for light microscopy or glutaraldehyde

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(metacarpophalangeal) joints as well as both hind limbs over the tuber coxae; stifle, tarsal, and fetlock (metatarsophalangeal) joints; and the lateral hoof wall at the level of the coffin (distal interphalangeal) joint for all hooves. Markers placed on the rider were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

apply pressure to the sole by means of two 0.5-inch-diameter, blunt-tipped screws. 29 Screws were inserted into threaded holes located 2 cm from the medial and lateral hoof walls in the bar that crossed between the branches of the shoe at the widest

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The equine digital laminae connect the outer surface of the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall and suspend the equine axial skeleton within the hoof capsule. 1 In healthy horses, the 2-layer tissue supports the vertical load of the animals

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

equine hoof wall In vivo: implications for the material design and functional morphology of the wall . J Exp Biol 1992 ; 166 : 145 – 168 . 10.1242/jeb.166.1.145 23. Chateau H , Holden L , Robin D , et al. Biomechanical analysis of hoof

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association