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ulceration, meibomian gland dysfunction, and tear film deficiencies, on doxycycline concentrations in the tear film must be evaluated. See page 508 Predictors of intestinal surgical site failure in dogs with septic peritonitis following celiotomy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Comments The most common cause of pneumoperitoneum in small animals is recent (0 to 25 days) celiotomy with air being trapped during closure and absorbed by the peritoneum after surgery 1 ; however, the dog reported here did not have evidence of surgery

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the small intestines (s). Material consistent with feces (f) can be seen within the lumen. A paper clip (p) is evident in the stomach in all images. Comments Exploratory celiotomy was performed in this dog, and colonic volvulus was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

persistent gastric distention. The material observed provided strong acoustic shadowing suggestive of a gastric foreign body ( Figure 4 ). Exploratory celiotomy and gastrotomy were performed, and a large, firm, sponge-like material intermixed with food

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with medical versus surgical lesions. There is a lack of consistency in the literature evaluating exploratory celiotomy in foals and young horses. Some reports include only patients with gastrointestinal disease, 9,14 whereas others include

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

after exploratory celiotomy for colic. In populations of horses from various disciplines and ages, 68% to 84% of horses that survived 6 months after surgery have been reported to perform at or above their intended level of use following colic surgery. 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ventral midline celiotomy was performed. The PPDH was identified in a ventral and central position. The content of the hernia was reduced (small intestines and gall bladder). The hernia was closed by use of a pericardial flap to aid apposition of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Thirty horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups. All horses were anesthetized and subjected to ventral midline celiotomy, then the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Colonic arterial blood flow was reduced to 20% of baseline (bl) and was maintained for 3 hours. Colonic blood flow was then restored, and the colon was reperfused for an additional 3 hours. One of 5 drug solutions was administered via the jugular vein 30 minutes prior to colonic reperfusion: group 1, 0.9% NaCl; group 2, dimethyl sulfoxide: 1 g/kg of body weight; group 3, allopurinol: 25 mg/kg; group 4, 21-aminosteroid U-74389G: 10 mg/kg; and group 5, manganese chloride (MnCl2): 10 mg/kg. Hemodynamic variables were monitored and recorded at 30-minutes intervals. Systemic arterial, systemic venous (sv), and colonic venous (cv) blood samples were collected for measurement of blood gas tensions, oximetry, lactate concentration, Pcv, and plasma total protein concentration. The eicosanoids, 6-keto prostaglandin F, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2, were measured in cv blood, and endotoxin was measured in cv and sv blood. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were harvested from the left ventral colon for histologic evaluation and determination of wet weight-to-dry weight ratios (WW:DW). Data were analyzed, using two-way ANOVA for repeated measures, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output increased with MnCl2 infusion; heart rate and cardiac output remained increased throughout the study, but mean arterial pressure returned to bl values within 30 minutes after completion of MnCI2 infusion. Other drug-induced changes were not significant. There were significant increases in mean pulmonary artery and mean right atrial pressures at 2 and 2.5 hours in horses of all groups, but other changes across time or differences among groups were not observed. Mean pulmonary artery pressure remained increased through 6 hours in all groups, but mean right atrial pressure had returned to bl values at 3 hours. Mean colonic arterial pressure was significantly decreased at 30 minutes of ischemia and remained decreased through 6 hours; however, by 3.25 hours it was significantly higher than the value at 3 hours of ischemia. Colonic arterial resistance decreased during ischemia and remained decreased throughout reperfusion in all groups; there were no differences among groups for colonic arterial resistance. Colonic venous Po2, oxygen content, and pH decreased, and Pco2 and lactate concentration increased during ischemia but returned to bl values during reperfusion. Compared with bl values, colonic oxygen extraction ratio was increased from 0.5 to 3 hours. By 15 minutes of reperfusion, colonic oxygen extraction ratio had decreased from the bl value in all groups and either remained decreased or returned to values not different from bl through 6 hours. Colonic venous 6-keto prostaglandin F and prostaglandin E2 concentrations increased during ischemia, but returned to bl on reperfusion; there were no changes in thrombox- ane2 concentration among or within groups. Endotoxin was not detected in cv or sv blood after ischemia or reperfusion. There were no differences among or within groups for these variables. Low-flow ischemia and reperfusion (i-r) of the large colon caused mucosal injury, as evidenced by increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio, mucosal neutrophil index, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, and mucosal cellular debris index. There was a trend (P = 0.06) toward greater percentage depth of mucosal loss at 6 hours in horses treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, compared with the vehicle control solution. There were no differences in the remainder of the histologic variables among groups. Full-thickness and mucosal WW:DW increased with colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was a trend (P = 0.09) toward neutrophil accumulation, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity, in the lungs after colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was no change in lung WW:DW after colonic I-R. There were no beneficial effects of drugs directed against oxygen-derived free radical-mediated damage on colonic mucosal injury associated with low-flow I-R. Deleterious drug-induced hemodynamic effects were not observed in this study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

History An 8-year-old 527-kg (1,161-lb) healthy Quarter Horse gelding was properly anesthetized and intubated and underwent sham ventral median celiotomy, with minimal intestinal manipulation, as part of the control group of an intestinal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

day of surgery, which again revealed a palpable right testis in the scrotum but no evidence of a left testis. The dog was then prepared for routine exploratory abdominal celiotomy and castration via a prescrotal incision. After anesthesia was induced

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association