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use of local anesthetics was available. In 7 cases, perioperative administration of local anesthesia was recorded, including liposomal bupivacaine (Nocita) infusion into the closure layers in 3 surgeries, retrobulbar bupivacaine administration in 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

identified through in vitro 41 and in vivo 42 studies involving rats, and potentially, the anesthetic we used could have contributed to dehiscence in the dog. However, another study 43 of lignocaine and bupivacaine on wound healing in rats found no adverse

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

in combination with bupivacaine did not significantly prolong sciatic and femoral nerve blockade in dogs. For this reason, we elected to evaluate higher doses of dexmedetomidine (1 and 2 µg/kg). Doses used in the present study were also chosen on the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reference ranges. An additional dose of hydromorphone (0.02 mg/kg, IV) was administered intraoperatively due to response to noxious surgical stimulation. At the end of the procedure, a peri-incisional line block with bupivacaine was performed at the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

area using bupivacaine 0.5% (1 mg/kg; Figure 2 ). Full-thickness skin wounds were created surgically with a scalpel blade. Wounds were blotted with sterile gauze until hemostasis was achieved. Left hemithorax wounds were treated with the NPWT system

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mental (0.2 mL [1 mg]) nerve blocks were performed with bupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL). The left mandibular first molar tooth was surgically extracted, and the right mandibular third incisor tooth was removed by simple extraction. The extraction

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

by bilateral inferior alveolar and infraorbital nerve blocks with 0.5% bupivacaine solution followed by routine extractions of the right maxillary canine and first premolar teeth. The cystic cavity was drained and enucleated, and the distended bone

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

) were negative. An epidural injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) had been given at the time of the anesthesia for MRI. The cat was further treated with a course of clavulanate-potentiated amoxicillin b

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

tooth are indicated (white arrows). A supernumerary tooth (black arrow) is present. Treatment and Outcome With the patient under general anesthesia, a right inferior alveolar nerve block (0.6 mL [3 mg]) was performed with bupivacaine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

epidurally administered morphine, bupivacaine hydrochloride, and both in combination versus sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in dogs undergoing various hind limb orthopedic surgeries. All groups received an opioid as a premedication, and the epidural

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association