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potassium EDTA. All blood samples were centrifuged at 1,500 × g for 10 minutes. A 2-mL aliquot of serum or plasma was separated from each sample, placed in a cryovial, and frozen at −80°C until analyzed for serum cortisol and TNF-α concentrations or plasma

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentrations and LDH and NAGase activities in whey fractions — The BSA and TNF-α concentrations in the whey fractions of collected milk samples were determined by use of ELISAs as previously described. 17,43 For determination of LDH activity, the whey

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

minimal effects on expression patterns of genes associated with wound healing in the 6 horses; gene expression of IL-6 in inoculated limb wounds was 4.6 times that in noninoculated limb wounds on day 27 ( P = 0.02); gene expression of TNF-α was 2.0 times

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,177 humans and then followed changes in LBM for 5 years. That study revealed that higher concentrations of inflammatory markers, including CRP, interleukin-6, and TNF-α were associated with a greater 5-year decrease in LBM, compared with humans with decreased

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, cachexia, and critical illnesses. 13 Muscle atrophy can also occur in inherited and acquired myopathies and neuropathies. Triggering signals of muscle wasting include proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) that are potent activators of NFκB

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

transcription of 1 μg of total RNA extracted from each injured kidney, a PCR assay was performed for VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-β, SDF-1, and HGF with canine-specific primers ( Appendix ). The initial denaturation step was performed at 94°C for 5 minutes. This was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

from each kidney of each dog. After reverse transcription of 1 μg of total RNA extracted from each injured kidney, a PCR assay was performed for VEGF, TNF-α, TGF-β, SDF-1, and HGF by use of canine-specific primers ( Appendix ). The initial denaturation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fluid), IL-1β n (synovial fluid), TNF-α o (serum), PGE2 p (synovial fluid), and CTX-I q (serum). The ELISA results (absorbance) were measured at 450 nm with a microplate reader. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate. Positive, negative, and blank

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

–16 stimulate the synthesis of APPs by hepatocytes. 17,18 The major cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6), which have proinflammatory properties, 16,19 exert their effect rapidly and jointly, inducing the activation of hepatic receptors that may lead to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentrations of LPS, TNF-α, and prostaglandin F 2A were increased significantly at failure, compared with preexercise values. 18 Because LPS-mediated effects on neutrophils appear to be mediated by TNF-α and prostaglandins, 19 strenuous exercise exposes

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research