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-ranging reptiles. 6,7 The underlying cause of the formation of urinary calculi in chelonians is unknown, although several factors have been thought to contribute to their formation, including vitamin deficiencies, calcium deficiency, and excess protein and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, including reptiles. Histologically, the skin of members of the order Squamata (snakes and lizards) has an outer epidermis and an inner dermis that contains nerves, blood, and lymphatic vessels. 19 The amount of bleeding and active inflammation has been

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

R enal lesions have been reported in 40% of captive chameleons 1 and 64% of Hermann tortoises ( Testudo hermanni ) 2 at necropsy. As renal disease is frequent in reptiles, there is a need to develop noninvasive diagnostic tests to detect early

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

healthy animals without any clinical signs: Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba terrapinae . 4 Other species of Entamoeba that affect reptiles include Entamoeba insolita , Entamoeba barreti , Entamoeba testudinis , Entamoeba terrapinae , and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

declare that there were no conflicts of interest. Footnotes a. Pro Plan Veterinary Diets CN Critical Nutrition diet, Purina, St Louis, Mo. References 1. Campbell T. Clinical pathology of reptiles . In: Divers SJ , Mader DM , eds

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

procedures in reptiles, visualization of the ovaries in turtles generally does not require insufflation. 10,11,15 Additionally, our technique did not require placement of endosurgical cannulae. Although cannulae may be used successfully in chelonians

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

recovery and healing, reduces morbidity, and contributes to a more rapid return to normal behavior. 2,3 In reptiles, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying nociception, analgesic drug efficacy and adverse effects, drug pharmacodynamics

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Urolithiasis is commonly reported in reptiles housed in zoological institutions and kept as companion animals. 1 – 11 However, although urolithiasis is recognized as an important cause of urinary tract disease in reptiles, there

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

increased, except for snakes (11.3% decrease) and other reptiles (excluding turtles and lizards; 66.7% decrease; Table 2 ). Fish, the most common type of specialty or exotic pet in 2006 (total number, 75.9 million), were owned by 7.8% of US households. Mean

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

21°C. Plasma was decanted, placed in microcentrifuge tubes f on ice, and transferred to rotors in the tabletop analyzer. Each rotor required 0.1 mL of plasma for analysis. Plasma was analyzed by use of an avian-reptile rotor g and a mammalian liver

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association