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visualized (solid arrow). A small amount of pleural effusion is also evident (dashed arrow). B—Notice the marked diastolic collapse (dotted arrow) in the right atrium, consistent with cardiac tamponade. LA = Left atrium. LV = Left ventricle. PE = Pericardial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

also visible in this view (arrowhead). Scale on the right indicates depth in centimeters. IVS = Interventricular septum. LA = Left atrium. LV = Left ventricle. ML = Mural leaflet. RA = Right atrium. RV = Right ventricle. SL = Septal leaflet

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the right ventricle prevent consistent imaging and application of the same mathematic equations used to assess echocardiographic function of the left ventricle. 6 Assessment of right ventricular function has not become a routine part of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the left ventricle. Group 3 (cardiomyopathy with CHF) included cats with cardiomyopathy and signs of associated decompensation such as dyspnea and radiographic detection of congested pulmonary vessels, pleural effusion, or pulmonary edema

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

necessarily consecutive, heart cycles. Software within the ultrasound machine recorded all measurements for the left atrium and aorta and calculated the LA:Ao and the mean for each variable. M-mode echocardiographic measurements of the left ventricle were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The left atrium contributes to the maintenance of optimal cardiac performance by modulating the filling of the left ventricle through 3 phasic functions. These consist of a reservoir function (expansion associated with the inflow of blood from the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

septum and left ventricular posterior wall, respectively, resulting in severely decreased excursion of the leaflets. Turbulent blood flow across the MV from the LA to the left ventricle was noted in diastole, along with mild mitral regurgitation in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, which could not be taken into account. In addition, the M-mode variables used to calculate FS are recorded from the transverse plane of the left ventricle and only assess circumferential movement of the ventricular walls. The FS does not account for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

′:A′ ratio and age has been reported for the right 5–8 and left ventricles 58 in humans and for the left ventricle in cats. 59 This suggests that there is an age-related limitation in early diastolic myocardial relaxation that requires an increase in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

internal diameters were measured from the M-mode right short-axis view of the left ventricle at the level of the chordae tendinae to calculate FS of the left ventricle. The E-point septal separation was measured from the M-mode right short-axis view of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research