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Introduction On an increasingly populated planet, where there is an impetus to do better by animals, communities, and the environment, dairy’s place in the global food system warrants examination. Animal well-being, the nutritional value of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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occurring ocular diseases in animals by veterinarians is particularly important in one health initiatives, where optimal health outcomes are achieved by recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment. 1 , 2 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

formed on the basis of 2 goals. First, swab specimens of feces, soil, the environment, cleaning tools, and water buckets were collected to evaluate the extent of environmental contamination and dissemination of S enterica in the population. Second, raw

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

be placed in chambers with a total volume appropriate for their relative body size. The acute exposure to this novel space-restricted environment may cause an increase in stress, which not only raises welfare concerns but also may affect the accuracy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

frequently cited included providing information in a frank and forthright manner; in multiple formats; in understandable language; in an unrushed environment wherein staff took the time to listen, answer all questions, and repeat what was needed; on a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe scintigraphic and transrectal ultrasonographic anatomic variants of the lumbosacral (LS) articulation in horses and to determine the agreement between results obtained with each imaging modality.

ANIMALS

243 horses (81 Selle Français Warmbloods, 81 French Standardbred Trotters, and 81 Thoroughbreds).

PROCEDURES

A retrospective search of clinical records was conducted to identify horses that had undergone nuclear scintigraphy and transrectal ultrasonography of the LS region of the vertebral column between January 2016 and December 2019. Scintigraphic images were evaluated by 2 observers blinded to the other’s results for classification of LS articulation anatomic variants (scintigraphic type); intra- and interobserver agreement were determined. Ultrasonographic images were evaluated for classification of LS intervertebral symphysis anatomic variant (ultrasonographic grade) by 1 observer blinded to horses’ identities and scintigraphic findings; agreement analysis was performed between scintigraphic type and ultrasonographic grade. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed to describe distribution of anatomic variants.

RESULTS

The scintigraphic classification system (scintigraphic type) had excellent intra- and interobserver agreement. Agreement between results for scintigraphic type and ultrasonographic grade was moderate (κ = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.70). Anatomic variants of the LS articulation were observed in all groups. The distribution of variants differed significantly among breeds but not sexes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Anatomic variations of the LS articulation in horses must be known to avoid misinterpreting them as clinically meaningful findings. Further research is needed to determine potential relationships between these anatomic variants and LS lesions, their clinical manifestations, and their influence on athletic performance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, in beef herds from Ohio; evaluate farm identity and animal age as risk factors; and examine serologic cross-reactivity with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an emerging disease agent.

ANIMALS

4 beef cattle herds (n = 327) sampled between December 2020 and December 2021.

PROCEDURES

To address the broader investigation of characterizing Anaplasma spp and genotypes in Ohio, herds with a history of clinical anaplasmosis were targeted. Blood was screened for antibodies to Anaplasma spp using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with seropositive samples tested for A marginale using real-time PCR. If negative, samples were also tested for A phagocytophilum.

RESULTS

We estimated a statewide molecular prevalence of 38.53% (95% CI, 33.26% to 43.81%), with some farms exhibiting higher prevalence than others (19.40% to 56.86%). Accounting for farm identity, the odds of an animal becoming infected increased by 1.41 (95% CI, 1.28 to 1.58) for every year in age. Forty-four animals tested seropositive but PCR negative for A marginale. Out of these, 2 tested positive for A phagocytophilum.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our study was the first to report prevalence estimates for bovine anaplasmosis in Ohio. Although prevalence was higher than other states, this is most likely due to our sampling approach. Our results suggested that older animals are more likely to be infected with A marginale, and when animals are instead infected with A phagocytophilum, serology alone can be misleading wherever the 2 species co-occur. Our study can guide wider epidemiological studies for informing management in Ohio.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the effect of different substance combinations administered through mesotherapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

ANIMALS

104 dogs.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, 4 groups (dogs treated with a combination of lidocaine, piroxicam, and thiocolchicoside [MG]; dogs treated with lidocaine, piroxicam, and Traumeel [TG]; dogs treated with lidocaine, piroxicam, and glucosamine [GG]; and dogs treated with the same combination as in MG combined with a photobiomodulation session [MPG]) were set. For all groups, the same treatment frequency was followed. Response to treatment was measured with the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (divided into pain interference score and pain severity score), Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD), and Canine Orthopedic Index (divided into function, gait, stiffness, and quality of life) before treatment and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of treatment, age, sex, body weight, breed, and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals score.

RESULTS

Dogs had a mean age of 7.6 ± 3.1 years and body weight of 28.6 ± 5.5 kg. Hip osteoarthritis was classified as mild (4), moderate (70), or severe (30). Greater improvements were observed in MG and MPG. Kaplan-Meier estimators showed MG and MPG had longer periods with clinically significant results. Treatment was the covariable that contributed more frequently to the outcomes observed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The combination used in MG, particularly combined with photobiomodulation, produced longer-lasting clinically significant results.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

There is increasing interest in evaluating how chronic disease may affect dogs through assessment of their behavior in their everyday environment. 1–4 Many chronic conditions can cause changes in a dog's activity. Conditions such as cardiac

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research