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documented the presence of abdominal effusion, if total serum bilirubin concentration was ≤ 0.4 mg/dL (laboratory reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL), and if there was surgical confirmation of gallbladder rupture during exploratory laparotomy. Medical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 10-year-old sexually intact male Bulldog mix (dog 1) was examined at the University of Florida Small Animal Hospital because of an acute onset of pleural effusion and ventricular tachycardia. Echocardiography and an ECG were performed, and a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. In order of onset, features in these dogs included anorexia (20/22; 91%), lethargy (19/22; 86%), vomiting (20/22; 91%), jaundice (16/22; 73%), diarrhea (18/22; 81%; frequently associated with melena progressing to hematochezia), abdominal effusion (14

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared on 56 horses and cows with lower respiratory tract disease. Ultrasonography was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of small pleural effusions and consolidations in large animals. The side of the thorax affected and the character of the pleural fluid and lung in large animals with pleural effusion can be evaluated ultrasonographically. The periphery of the lung must be affected to characterize pulmonary lesions ultrasonographically. Radiography is the best technique to characterize lesions deep within the lung when the periphery of the lung is normal.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

recumbency, and the claws and distal portions of the limbs were thoroughly evaluated to rule these regions out as potential sources of the lameness. No external wounds, palpable joint effusion, swellings, or sensitivity to hoof testers was noted on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical signs of pericarditis in horses and to determine whether there were any relationships among clinical signs, echocardiographic findings, treatment, and outcome.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

18 horses.

Results

Physical examination was performed on 16 horses. Cardiovascular abnormalities included tachycardia (n = 16), pericardial friction rub (10), venous distention (7), murmur (7), muffled heart sounds (6), weak arterial pulse (6), jugular pulse (6), and edema (5). Twelve horses also had respiratory abnormalities; the most common was dull lung sounds, ventrally, suggestive of pleural effusion (10). Echocardiography was the most important tool for diagnosis of pericarditis. Detection of clinical signs of right-sided heart failure was significantly associated with severe accumulation of pericardial effusion and with detection of cardiac compromise. Severe accumulation of pericardial effusion was also significantly associated with echocardiographic detection of cardiac compromise. Pericarditis was idiopathic in 6 horses, and bacterial in 5. Five horses had nonseptic pericarditis associated with bacterial respiratory disease, and 2 had nonseptic pericarditis associated with viral respiratory disease. Fourteen of the 18 horses were treated specifically for pericarditis; 10 received antimicrobials and 6 with suspected immune-mediated pericarditis received corticosteroids. Pericardial drainage and lavage were performed on 6 horses in which pericardial effusion or fibrin accumulation was compromising cardiac function. Pericarditis resolved in all 14 horses that were treated, and all 14 returned to their prior Intended use.

Clinical Implications

With early detection of disease and aggressive treatment, the prognosis for horses with pericarditis is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:248–253)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine long-term outcome of dogs with neoplastic and nonneoplastic pericardial disease that undergo pericardiectomy.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

22 dogs.

Procedure

Dogs that underwent pericardiectomy and in which the diagnosis had been confirmed histologically were included. Data collected from each record included signalment, history, clinical signs, results of diagnostic evaluations, operative management, postoperative complications, histologic diagnosis, and outcome. Dogs were grouped on the basis of underlying cause of pericardial disease (neoplastic vs nonneoplastic), and survival times were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier analyses.

Results

9 dogs had neoplastic pericardial disease (chemodectoma, 4; hemangiosarcoma, 2; malignant mesothelioma, 2; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1). Thirteen dogs had nonneoplastic pericardial disease (benign idiopathic pericarditis, 10; lymphocytic-plasmacytic pericarditis, 2; osseous metaplasia of unknown cause, 1). Thoracic radiography and echocardiography were the most specific methods for diagnosis of pericardial effusion. Pleural effusion was the most common postoperative complication (8/22 dogs). Prevalence of postoperative complications was not associated with underlying cause of pericardial disease, surgical approach, or surgical procedure (subtotal vs total pericardiectomy). Median survival time of dogs with neoplastic disease (52 days) was significantly shorter than median survival time of dogs with nonneoplastic disease (792 days). Dogs that developed pleural effusion > 30 days after pericardiectomy had a poor prognosis for survival.

Clinical Implications

Radiography and echocardiography are useful for diagnosis of pericardial effusion in dogs. Dogs with neoplastic pericardial disease have a significantly shorter survival time than do dogs with nonneoplastic pericardial disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:736–740)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To characterize history, clinical signs, and pathologic findings in horses with histologically confirmed acute hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction and necrotizing pneumonia.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

21 horses.

Results—

19 of the 21 horses were Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Eighteen horses had had strenuous exercise immediately prior to onset of illness. Fifteen horses had a serosanguineous nasal discharge during hospitalization. Seventeen horses had radiographic evidence of pulmonary consolidation and pleural effusion. Nine of 14 horses had ultrasonographic evidence of large pulmonary parenchymal defects consistent with consolidation. Pleurocentesis yielded a suppurative, serosanguineous effusion in the 14 horses in which it was performed. Bacteria were isolated from all transtracheal aspirates (14) and from 6 of 12 pleural fluid samples. Actinobacillus suis-like organisms and Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus were most commonly isolated. Nineteen horses were hospitalized and treated, Mean duration of treatment was 5 days, and most horses were euthanatized because of secondary complications, continued costs of medical treatment, or poor prognosis for future performance. Pathologic lesions included well-demarcated regions of hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction with necrosis and a serosanguineous pleural effusion. Thrombosis of pulmonary vessels was found in 11 horses.

Clinical Implications—

An acute or peracute onset of severe respiratory distress, with serosanguineous nasal discharge, ultrasonographic and radiographic evidence of severe pulmonary consolidation, and serosanguineous suppurative pleural effusion, is strongly suggestive of pulmonary infarction in horses. Horses with pulmonary infarction responded poorly to conventional treatment for pleuropneumonia and had a poor prognosis for recovery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1774–1778)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Sonographic findings correlated with necropsy findings in 8 of 9 horses in which the cranial portion of the mediastinum was evaluated by use of both methods. Cranial mediastinal masses were imaged as multilobular and homogeneously hypoechoic; a complex echogenic pattern was observed with necrosis within the mass. Pleural effusion was a common finding in horses with mediastinal lymphosarcoma. Cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid samples was useful in diagnosis of lymphosarcoma in 10 of 12 horses that had thoracentesis. Sonographic examination of the thorax and cranial portion of the mediastinum can aid in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphosarcoma in horses. Such examination should be performed in horses with clinical signs of cranial vena cava obstruction in which pleural effusion is detected, or when thoracic lymphosarcoma is suspected.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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Summary

The vacuum phenomenon was visualized in 20 of 100 scapulohumeral joints with osteochondritic lesions in 65 dogs. The phenomenon was associated with the finding of a cartilage flap, lack of joint effusion, and clinical signs of pain and lameness. The vacuum phenomenon was not observed on radiography of 30 clinically normal contralateral joints, and it could not be induced in 36 clinically normal scapulohumeral joints radiographed under stressed extension.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association