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Objective

To identify risk factors associated with fatal acute pancreatitis in dogs.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

70 case dogs with clinical evidence and histopathologic confirmation of fatal acute pancreatitis and 104 control dogs that had trauma, underwent necropsy, and did not have histologic evidence of acute pancreatitis.

Procedure

Information on signalment, weight, body condition, medical history, concurrent disease, and results of histopathologic examination was obtained by reviewing medical records. Logistic regression analysis included calculation of univariate and multivariate (adjusted) odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results and Clinical Implications

Dogs with fatal acute pancreatitis were largely middle- to older-aged dogs. Risk of developing fatal acute pancreatitis was increased by overweight body condition, diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, prior gastrointestinal tract disease, and epilepsy. Additionally, Yorkshire Terriers were at increased risk, and Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Poodles were at decreased risk, of developing fatal acute pancreatitis. Males and neutered females appeared to have an increased risk of developing fatal acute pancreatitis, compared with sexually intact females. Thrombus formation was more likely in dogs that developed fatal acute pancreatitis than in control dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:46–51)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Prevalence of intraoperative contamination of the eyelids, conjunctival sac, and aqueous humor of 50 canine eyes that underwent elective cataract surgery was determined, and the short-term outcomes for contaminated and noncontaminated eyes were compared by scoring media clarity, pupil size and shape, and behavioral evidence of vision during the initial 30-day postoperative period. Results of bacteriologic culture of anterior chamber samples were positive for 12 of the 50 (24%) eyes, but anterior chamber contamination was unrelated to results of bacteriologic culture of eyelids or conjunctival sac swab samples. Eyes undergoing phacoemulsification were less likely to be contaminated than were eyes undergoing intra- or extracapsular extraction. Eyes undergoing intra- or extracapsular extraction and eyes with anterior chamber contamination had a greater likelihood of developing glaucoma postoperatively. We did not detect an association between intraocular contamination and the surgeon performing the operation, the need for postoperative administration of tissue plasminogen activator, or the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. Also, we did not detect any differences in outcome between eyes with and without intraocular contamination. Despite intraoperative bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber, bacterial endophthalmitis did not develop in any of the eyes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of dietary lipid and protein on development of hepatic lipidosis (HL) and on physical and biochemical indices following rapid weight loss in cats.

Animals—24 ovariohysterectomized cats.

Procedure—Cats were fed a high energy diet until they gained 30% of their ideal body weight and then randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 weight-reduction diets (6 cats/diet) at 25% of maintenance energy requirements per day. Diets contained a low or high quality protein source and a lipid source deficient or sufficient in long chain essential fatty acids (LCEFA). Serum and plasma samples and liver biopsy specimens were obtained for biochemical analyses and determination of hepatic lipid content before and after weight gain and during and after weight loss.

Results—Irrespective of weight-reduction diet fed, all cats lost weight at a comparable rate (4.51 to 5.00 g/d/kg of obese body weight). Three cats developed hepatic lipidosis. Significant changes in plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and serum glucose concentrations were detected after weight gain and weight loss in all diet groups, but values for these variables did not differ among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats can lose 25 to 30% of their obese body weight over 7 to 9 weeks without developing overt clinical signs of HL, provided that weight-reduction diets are highly palatable, contain a high quality protein, have a source of LCEFA, and are fortified with vitamins and microminerals. However, rapid weight loss may increase risk factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:559–565)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine responses of canine and feline lenses to incubation in a medium with a high glucose concentration.

Sample Population—Lenses from 35 dogs and 26 cats.

Procedure—Glucose concentrations were measured in paired lenses from 25 dogs and 17 cats after incubation for 14 days in high-glucose (30 mmol of glucose/ L) or control (6 mmol of glucose/L) medium. Aldose reductase activity was measured spectrophotometrically in the incubated lenses and in freshly frozen lenses from 10 dogs and 9 cats. Two lenses of each group were studied histologically.

Results—Canine and feline lenses in high-glucose medium developed glucose-specific opacities of variable localization and extent. Canine lenses developed equatorial vacuoles, but severity of the lesions was not associated with the age of the dog. Lenses from young cats (≤ 4 years old) developed extensive posterior cortical opacities, whereas those from older cats (> 4 years old) did not. Glucose concentrations were similar in all lenses incubated in high-glucose medium; however aldose reductase activity was significantly lower in lenses from older cats, compared with lenses from young cats and from dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High aldose reductase activity and glucose-related opacities suggest a central role for this enzyme in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataracts in dogs and cats. Because onset of diabetes mellitus usually occurs in cats > 7 years of age, low activity of aldose reductase in lenses of older cats may explain why diabetic cataracts are rare in this species despite hyperglycemia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1591–1597)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether changes in concentrations of hormones involved in glucose and fatty acid homeostasis are responsible for the increased probability that neutered cats will develop obesity and diabetes mellitus.

Animals—10 male and 10 female weight-maintained adult cats.

Procedure—Results of glucose tolerance tests and concentrations of hormones and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were examined before and 4, 8, and 16 weeks after neutering.

Results—Caloric requirements for weight maintenance were significantly decreased 8 and 16 weeks after neutering in females. Glucose concentrations during a glucose tolerance test did not change in neutered females or males. The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin was significantly higher in males, compared with females, before neutering. However, the AUC for insulin increased and was significantly higher 4 and 8 weeks after neutering in females. The AUC for insulin did not change in neutered male cats. Leptin concentrations did not change in females but increased significantly in males 8 and 16 weeks after neutering. Thyroxine concentrations did not change after neutering; however, free thyroxine concentration was significantly higher in females than males before neutering. Baseline concentrations of NEFA were significantly higher in female than male cats before but not after neutering. Suppression of NEFA concentrations after glucose administration decreased successively in male cats after neutering, suggesting decreased insulin sensitivity.

Conclusionss and Clinical Relevance—Changes in NEFA suppression, caloric intake, and leptin concentrations may be indicators of, and possible risk factors for, the development of obesity in cats after neutering. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:634–639)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine toxic effects of streptozocin given in combination with a diuresis protocol in dogs and establish whether streptozocin is efficacious in treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, tumor stage and staging tests performed, number of streptozocin treatments, adverse effects, results of biochemical and hematologic monitoring during streptozocin treatment, tumor dimensions, duration of normoglycemia, and date of death, when applicable. Dogs were compared with a historical control group of 15 dogs treated surgically and medically.

Results—58 treatments were administered to the 17 dogs. Only 1 dog developed azotemia. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity increased in some dogs but decreased when treatment was discontinued. Hematologic toxicoses were rare. Vomiting during administration was uncommon but occasionally severe. Two dogs developed diabetes mellitus after receiving 5 doses. Median duration of normoglycemia for 14 dogs with stage-II or -III insulinoma treated with streptozocin was 163 days (95% confidence interval, 16 to 309 days), which was not significantly different from that for the control dogs (90 days; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 426 days). Two dogs had rapid resolution of paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy, and 2 others had measurable reductions in tumor size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that streptozocin can be administered safely to dogs at a dosage of 500 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks when combined with a protocol for induction of diuresis and may be efficacious in the treatment of dogs with metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:811–818)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Outcome of and complications associated with bilateral adrenalectomy in 8 cats with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia and outcome of and complications associated with unilateral adrenalectomy in 2 cats with adrenocortical tumor (adrenocortical adenoma, 1 cat; adrenocortical carcinoma, 1 cat) and unilateral adrenomegaly were determined. Glucocorticoids were administered to all cats at the time of surgery, and mineralocorticoids were administered to the 8 cats that underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. A ventral midline celiotomy was performed in all cats.

Intraoperative complications did not develop in any cat. Postoperative complications developed in all cats and included abnormal serum electrolyte concentrations (n = 8), skin lacerations (n = 5), pancreatitis (n = 3), hypoglycemia (n = 2), pneumonia (n = 1), and venous thrombosis (n = 1). Three cats died within 5 weeks after surgery of complications associated with sepsis (n = 2) or thromboembolism (n = 1). Clinical signs and physical abnormalities caused by hyperadrenocorticism resolved in the remaining 7 cats 2 to 4 months after adrenalectomy. Insulin treatment was discontinued in 4 of 6 cats with diabetes mellitus. Median survival time for these 7 cats was 12 months (range, 3 to > 30 months). Two cats died of acute adrenocortical insufficiency 3 and 6 months after bilateral adrenalectomy, 2 cats were euthanatized because of chronic renal failure 3 and 12 months after bilateral (n = 1) or unilateral (n = 1) adrenalectomy, and 2 cats were alive 9 and 14 months after bilateral adrenalectomy. In the remaining cat, clinical signs recurred 10 months after the cat had undergone unilateral adrenalectomy. The remaining adrenal gland was found to contain an adrenocortical adenoma and was removed. The cat was doing well when it was lost to follow-up 15 months after the second surgery.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 101 dogs with acute pancreatitis, diagnosed on the basis of medical histories of acute vomiting, with serum lipase or amylase activity greater than the reference range, or with gross signs of pancreatitis at surgery or histopathologic evidence at necropsy, were evaluated to identify potential risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis.

Age, sex, and breed of dogs with acute pancreatitis were compared with those from a reference population of 100 dogs admitted for other medical emergencies during the same period. Analysis of multiple regression models indicated that dogs > 7 years old were at increased risk for acute pancreatitis. Spayed dogs and castrated male dogs had an increased risk, compared with that of sexually intact males. Similarly, terrier and nonsporting breeds appeared to be at higher risk of developing acute pancreatitis than were other breed types.

Most dogs in this study (63/101) had intercurrent diseases, including diabetes mellitus (n = 14), hyperadrenocorticism (n = 12), chronic renal failure (n = 8), neoplasia (n = 17), congestive heart failure (n = 6), and autoimmune disorders (n = 5). Fourteen dogs had undergone anesthesia or surgery in the week before admission; only 3 had undergone abdominal procedures.

Recent medication use was listed in 52 of 101 cases. Antibiotics (n = 18) and corticosteroids (n = 18) were most frequently described. Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents (n = 5) and organophosphate insecticides (n = 5) also were listed.

We conclude that increasing age and particular breed types are risk factors for pancreatitis in dogs, and that spayed females and castrated males are at increased risk, compared with that for sexually intact male dogs. Intercurrent diseases, drug treatment, anesthesia, and surgery are potential risk factors that require additional verification.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate effects of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber (4:1) at 3 incorporation rates on nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, insulin, α-aminonitrogen, urea, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations measured weekly in nonfed dogs and during a 360-minute period after a meal.

Animals

8 castrated 1-to 1.4-year-old young adult male Beagles weighing 10.0 to 13.5 kg.

Procedure

Diets containing 2 incorporation rates of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber (5 and 10% on a dry matter basis [diets B and C, respectively]) were compared with a control diet without additional fiber (diet A). The 3 diets were evaluated for ability to modify digestibility of dry and organic matter, protein, fat, and ash and for effects on plasma glucose, insulin, α-aminonitrogen, urea, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Each diet was fed for 6 weeks; plasma samples were collected weekly before feeding and after feeding on the last day of the period. During 1 week at the end of the 6-week period, dogs were kept in metabolic cages. Each period of the block was followed by a 4-week washout period.

Results

Incorporating the blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber in the diet was associated with greater passage of wet feces (diets B and C) and lower protein digestibility (diet C). Postprandial glucose (diet C), urea (diets B and C) and triglyceride (diets B and C) concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased. Weekly preprandial measurements were characterized by decreased urea (diets B and C), cholesterol (diet C), and triglycerides (diets B and C) concentrations (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

Chronic consumption of fermentable fiber is associated with mildly decreased protein digestibility and with metabolic effects in nonfed or fed dogs.

Clinical Relevance

A blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber should be tested as a dietary aid for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia, in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1238–1242)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The absorption kinetics and glycemic effects of 3 long-acting insulin preparations (protamine zinc beefpork insulin, ultralente beef-pork insulin, and ultralente human insulin) were evaluated in 9 healthy, adult, domestic shorthair cats (6 males, 3 females). A triple crossover study was performed, in which the serial serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were determined over a 24-hour period after SC administration of the 3 insulin preparations (dosage, 1.0 U/kg of body weight) at 3-week intervals. A control study was also performed in 4 of the cats by serially collecting samples for insulin and glucose determinations after administration of insulin diluent. After administration of protamine zinc insulin (pzi), mean (± sem) serum insulin concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline, reached a peak value (484 ± 287 pmol/L) at 1 hour, and remained significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline at 24 hours. After administration of ultralente human insulin, the serum insulin curve was similar to that obtained after pzi administration, but mean serum insulin concentration took longer to peak (538 ± 177 pmol/L at 4 hours). After administration of ultralente beef-pork insulin, mean peak serum insulin concentration was lower (220 ± 54 pmol/L, not statistically significant) than that obtained after administration of pzi and ultralente human insulins; it then decreased to values statistically indistinguishable from baseline by 16 hours. The area under the serum insulin concentration curve for pzi (5,063 ±681 pmol • h/L) and ultralente human insulin (4,138 ± 439 pmol • h/L) was significantly (P < 0.05) larger than that for ultralente beef-pork insulin (2,378 ± 561 pmol • h/L). Serum glucose concentration decreased after administration of all 3 insulins, but the decrease was not different from that observed after diluent (control) administration. Results of this study indicate that differences may exist between absorption of pzi, ultralente human, and ultralente beef-pork insulins. Of the 2 ultralente insulin preparations, human insulin appears better absorbed than beef-pork insulin, but these findings need to be confirmed in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research