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Abstract

Objective—To assess heart rate variability (HRV) in Boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), assess the ability of HRV analysis to identify differences in Boxers on the basis of severity of their arrhythmia, and evaluate the use of HRV to determine whether persistently high sympathetic tone is present in these dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—24 Boxers with ARVC and 10 clinically normal non-Boxer dogs.

Procedure—Boxers were categorized as dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF), dogs with ≤ 2 ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h (designated unaffected), or dogs with > 1,000 VPCs/24 h (designated affected). Ambulatory electrocardiography (24 hours) was performed in each dog. Recordings were analyzed for HRV variables at a commercial laboratory; differences in HRV variables among groups were compared with 1-way ANOVA.

Results—Compared with control non-Boxer dogs and Boxers without CHF (affected and unaffected Boxers), HRV was reduced in Boxers with CHF. No differences in HRV variables were detected between affected and unaffected Boxers. Inconsistent differences were identified between the control dogs and Boxers without CHF that had various degrees of arrhythmias.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that persistently high sympathetic tone is not a consistent feature of ARVC. Differences in some HRV variables between Boxers without CHF and control dogs suggest that Boxers may have different autonomic control of heart rate, compared with that of clinically normal non-Boxer dogs. The usefulness of HRV analysis appears limited to Boxers with ARVC that have systolic dysfunction and CHF. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:534–537)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize ambulatory electrocardiographic results of overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers and determine associations between those results and development of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—114 (58 male, 56 female) overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers without echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease on initial examination.

Procedure—Echocardiograms and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms (Holter recordings) were obtained initially and at variable intervals. The status (live vs dead) of all dogs was known at least 2 years and as long as 10 years after initial examination (mean [± SD] follow-up time, 4.33 ± 1.84 years). Associations between development of dilated cardiomyopathy and number of ventricular premature contractions (VPC), age, and sex were determined.

Results—55 dogs (48%) did not have VPC on initial Holter recordings, and only 8 dogs had > 50 VPC/24 hours. The likelihood that a dog would have VPC was associated with increasing age and being male. At least 1 VPC/24 hours, and in particular, > 50 VPC/24 hours or ≥ 1 couplet or triplet of VPC/24 hours, were predictive of subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Fifty-four dogs (47%) developed dilated cardiomyopathy; 12 were still alive at the end of the study, and 42 had died. Twenty-five of these 42 dogs died after the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 died suddenly before the onset of overt CHF, and 2 died of noncardiac causes. More males developed dilated cardiomyopathy than females, and dogs that died suddenly were approximately 1 year younger than those that developed CHF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of high-quality Holter recordings may be used to identify overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers that are at a high risk for dilated cardiomyopathy. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:34–39)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 101 dogs with acute pancreatitis, diagnosed on the basis of medical histories of acute vomiting, with serum lipase or amylase activity greater than the reference range, or with gross signs of pancreatitis at surgery or histopathologic evidence at necropsy, were evaluated to identify potential risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis.

Age, sex, and breed of dogs with acute pancreatitis were compared with those from a reference population of 100 dogs admitted for other medical emergencies during the same period. Analysis of multiple regression models indicated that dogs > 7 years old were at increased risk for acute pancreatitis. Spayed dogs and castrated male dogs had an increased risk, compared with that of sexually intact males. Similarly, terrier and nonsporting breeds appeared to be at higher risk of developing acute pancreatitis than were other breed types.

Most dogs in this study (63/101) had intercurrent diseases, including diabetes mellitus (n = 14), hyperadrenocorticism (n = 12), chronic renal failure (n = 8), neoplasia (n = 17), congestive heart failure (n = 6), and autoimmune disorders (n = 5). Fourteen dogs had undergone anesthesia or surgery in the week before admission; only 3 had undergone abdominal procedures.

Recent medication use was listed in 52 of 101 cases. Antibiotics (n = 18) and corticosteroids (n = 18) were most frequently described. Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents (n = 5) and organophosphate insecticides (n = 5) also were listed.

We conclude that increasing age and particular breed types are risk factors for pancreatitis in dogs, and that spayed females and castrated males are at increased risk, compared with that for sexually intact male dogs. Intercurrent diseases, drug treatment, anesthesia, and surgery are potential risk factors that require additional verification.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the ecg in a strain of rats, SHHF/Mcc-cp that developed cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure naturally. Lead-I, -aVF, and -V5 ecg were obtained from male rats at approximately 6, 10, and 19 months of age, corresponding to early, mild, and severe heart failure, respectively. Electrocardiograms also were obtained from male Wistar-Furth rats matched for age with SHHF/Mcc-cp rats. Heart rate, amplitude and duration of component deflections, degree of notching of P waves and QRS complexes, and orientation of means QRS vectors in the frontral plane were analyzed from the ecg. Durations of P waves, PQ intervals, QRS complexes, and QT intervals were prolonged and amplitude of R waves in lead aVF was decreased only in SHHF/Mcc-cp rats at the 19-month recording. Increased notching in QRS complexes, but not in P waves, was observed more frequently at all ages, in SHHF/Mcc-cp rats than in Wistar rats, and notching was greatest at 19 months. Arrhythmias were not observed in Wistar rats, but infrequent supraventricular premature depolarizations were observed in 2 of 10 SHHF/Mcc-cp rats at 19 months. In leads aVF and V5, T waves increased in amplitude as Wistar rats aged; however, in SHHF/Mcc-cp rats, T-wave amplitude peaked in all leads at 10 months, but returned to the 6-month value at month 19. We conclude that cardiomyopathy, heart failure, or both, resulted in changes in the ecg, but that these changes could be used to detect heart failure only when rats reached 19 months of age and were severely affected.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Postadulticide pulmonary hypertension mechanisms and treatment with antihistamines and supplemental oxygen were studied in eight dogs with heartworm disease. To ensure severe postadulticide thromboembolism, additional heartworms (either 20 or 40 into 4 dogs each) were transplanted into naturally infected dogs before thiacetarsamide treatment. During pentobarbital anesthesia, 2 pulmonary hemodynamic studies were conducted on each dog with a sequence of baseline, hypoxia with FlO2 = 10%, hyperoxia with FlO2 = 100%, a second baseline, treatment with either diphenhydramine (D) or cimetidine (C), and another hypoxia.

All dogs were pulmonary hypertensive, with each dog having a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) > 20 mm of Hg. Mean PPA increased from baseline conditions (25.0 ± 4.5 SD for D and 24.3 ± 4.4 for C) to hypoxia (28.5 ± 4.7 for D and 28.4 ± 3.7 for C), and decreased during hyperoxia (16.9 ± 3.0 for D and 17.4 ± 3.0 for C), respectively. Neither antihistamine reduced PPA at normoxia. The degree of pulmonary hypertension when breathing room air increased even more during hypoxia, and this increase was not attenuated by either antihistamine. Histamine did not appear to mediate pulmonary hypertension during postadulticide thromboembolism, nor to modify the hypoxia-mediated pulmonary hypertension at this disease stage. Because baseline PO2 was low (66.6 ± 11.7 mm of Hg for D and 69.4 ± 14.2 for C) and because PPA decreased during administration of oxygen, the pulmonary hypertension was mostly hypoxia-induced. In addition to the arterial lesions, much of the pulmonary hypertensive mechanism was an active and reversible vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia caused by the secondary lung disease. Supplemental oxygen to dogs with pulmonary hypertension could reduce PPA and right ventricular afterload. This study supports the use of oxygen, but not antihistamine drugs, in the treatment of postadulticide heartworm disease in dogs that are hypoxic, with signs of congestive heart failure or dyspnea.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We reviewed the medical records of 494 cats with a variety of nonthyroidal diseases in which serum thyroxine (T4) concentration was determined as part of diagnostic evaluation. The cats were grouped by category of disease (ie, renal disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, focal neoplasia, systemic neoplasia, hepatopathy, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory pulmonary disease, miscellaneous diseases, or undiagnosed disease), degree of illness (ie, mild, moderate, or severe), survival (ie, lived, died, or euthanatized), and presence or absence of a palpable thyroid gland. The mean (± sd) serum T4 concentrations in all 10 groups of cats, which ranged from 10.5 ± 11.1 nmol/L in cats with diabetes mellitus to 18.7 ± 7.8 nmol/L in cats with focal neoplasia, were significantly (P < 0.001) lower than those of normal cats (27.0 ± 10.4 nmol/L). The number of ill cats with low serum T4 concentrations (<10 nmol/L) was highest in the cats with diabetes mellitus (59%), hepatopathy (54%), renal failure (48%), and systemic neoplasia (41%). When the serum T4 concentrations in cats with mild, moderate, and severe illness were compared, mean concentrations were progressively lower (21.3 ± 6.8, 14.8 ± 8.1, and 6.5 ± 5.8 nmol/L, respectively) as degree of illness increased. Severity of illness had a more significant (P < 0.001) effect in lowering serum T4 concentrations than did disease category. Mean serum T4 concentrations in the cats that died (7.8 ± 9.8 nmol/L) or were euthanatized (10.0 ± 7.0 nmol/L) were also significantly (P < 0.001) lower than those of cats that survived (15.2 ± 8.8 nmol/L). Of the 182 cats with low serum T4 concentrations, 74 (41%) died or were euthanatized. The 63 cats with palpable thyroid nodules had significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean serum T4 concentrations (21.7 ± 10.4 nmol/L) than the cats in which a thyroid nodule was not palpated (12.7 ± 8.1 nmol/L). Adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland was confirmed at necropsy in 2 cats with a palpable thyroid gland, and 4 cats that survived have subsequently developed overt hyperthyroidism. This suggests that, in some cats with early or mild hyperthyroidism, concomitant nonthyroidal disease may suppress serum T4 concentrations into the normal range.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-sided congestive heart failure was considered unlikely. To interrogate for pulmonary hypertension and to characterize the ausculted heart murmur, an echocardiogram was performed. This revealed a mildly dilated left atrium (left atrial-to-aortic root ratio in

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction A 16-year-old 4.94-kg castrated male domestic shorthair cat was referred to Garden State Veterinary Specialists for further treatment of congestive heart failure, azotemia, collapse, and an arrhythmia. The referring emergency

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fibrosis associated with congestive heart failure. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, centrilobular congestion of the liver, and ascites. There was evidence of remodeling of the thrombi within the heart, indicating chronicity

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

IAVD was present in the remaining dog. Of the 11 dogs, 5 had congestive heart failure with left ventricular hypokinesis and 3 ultimately underwent electrophysiologic studies because of the presence of congestive heart failure and to evaluate the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association