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Abstract

Objective

Baculovirus-expressed transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein vaccines were inoculated parenterally in swine to determine whether such vaccines could induce serum and whey virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies and protective lactogenic immunity for TGEV-challenge-exposed pigs.

Animals and Procedures

3 recombinant baculoviruses that expressed full or partial length TGEV Miller strain S glycoproteins were inoculated SC in 17 conventionally raised 11-day-old TGEV-seronegative pigs to determine whether the recombinant S glycoproteins would elicit serum VN antibodies. Eleven TGEV-seronegative pregnant sows were inoculated SC or intramammarily with subunit vaccines (R2-2 or R3-5) or control proteins. Pigs born to 9 of the 11 sows were challenge exposed at 4 to 5 days of age with the virulent Miller strain, and passive immunity was assessed. Serum and whey antibody responses to TGEV were analyzed by VN and ELISA testing.

Results

Recombinant S glycoproteins (R2-2 or R3-5) containing the 4 major antigenic sites induced similar VN antibody titers to TGEV in serum and colostrum, but low (some sows) or no VN antibody titer was detected in milk. Subcutaneous inoculation of sows with R2-2 or R3-5 elicited IgG, but not IgA antibodies to TGEV in colostrum. Morbidity was 100%, and mortality ranged from 20 to 80% in TGEV challenge-exposed pigs nursing sows inoculated SC or intramammarily with TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Parenterally administered TGEV S glycoprotein vaccines elicit VN antibodies to TGEV in serum and colostrum that do not fully provide active or passive immunity in swine. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:242–250)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate changes in the nutrient and protein composition of cat milk during lactation.

Animals

12 lactating domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure

Milk samples collected on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 after parturition were analyzed for concentrations of nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, casein, whey proteins, amino acids, total lipids, lactose, citrate, minerals, and trace elements. Individual milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins) were analyzed by use of polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis.

Results

True protein concentration ranged from 6.3 to 8.6% and was as high in mature milk as in colostrum. Nonprotein nitrogen as a portion of total N was constant (approx 8%), as was the whey-to-casein ratio (approx 50:50). Total lipid concentration was high (9.3%) in colostrum, rapidly decreased, then increased to 9% in mature milk. Lactose concentration was constant at 4%. Milk calcium, iron, and copper concentrations increased markedly during lactation, and magnesium and zinc values remained constant. Colostrum and early milk had a low Ca-to-P ratio of 0.4:0.9. Although calcium concentration increased with time, phosphate concentration also increased so that the Ca-to-P ratio remained constant in mature milk at 1.0: 1.2. The major whey proteins had molecular weights of approximately 14,000, 19,000, 40,000 and 80,000. The 80,000 protein (possibly lactoferrin) decreased in concentration during lactation. Two major casein subunits of approximately 28,000 and 33,000 were found, and both increased during early lactation.

Conclusions

Nutrient composition of cat milk and, thus, provision of nutrients to nursing kittens changes over time. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:370-375)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine efficacy of a modified-live type-I isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in protecting calves from infection with a virulent type-II isolate, and to determine which type of immune response (ie, humoral or cellular) correlates with protection.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

28 neonatal Holstein and Holstein-cross calves.

Procedure

Within 18 hours of birth, calves received maternal colostrum or were fed pooled colostrum. On days 7 to 10 after birth, calves were determined to be seropositive (n = 16) or seronegative (12) for antibodies to BVDV on the basis of ELISA and virus neutralization test results. Seropositive and seronegative 10- to 14-day-old calves were then given a combined vaccine that contained a modified-live type-I isolate of BVDV or a similar vaccine that lacked protection against bovine viral diarrhea. All calves were inoculated intranasally approximately 21 days after vaccination with a virulent type-II isolate of BVDV. Clinical and immunologic variables, including clinical scores, rectal temperatures, results of CBC with lymphocyte subset analysis, antibody responses, and cell-mediated immune responses, were monitored for 14 days after inoculation.

Results

Seronegative-unvaccinated calves developed severe disease and required euthanasia. Vaccination of seronegative calves with a modified-live type-I isolate had a disease-sparing effect as did passive transfer of colostral antibodies to BVDV. Clinical scores were not significantly different between seropositive-vaccinated and seropositive-unvaccinated calves after viral inoculation.

Clinical Implications

A single dose of a modified-live type-I isolate of BVDV vaccine protects young calves from clinical signs of disease associated with type-II isolates. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1312-1319)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike protein, (SP) R2-2, with attenuated live virus (ALV) vaccine in sows during late pregnancy.

Animals

13 TGEV-seronegative sows and their pigs.

Procedure

At prepartum weeks (PPW) 6 and 4, sows of groups 1 and 2 received ALV via the oral/intranasal (O/IN) route. At PPW 2, group-1 sows received ALV IM and group-2 sows received SPR2-2 IM. Group-3 sows received SPR2-2 IM at PPW 4 and ALV O/IN at PPW 2. Sows of group 4 (negative controls) were inoculated O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW 6 and 4 and IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW2 (n = 2), or IM with Sf9 cell lysates at PPW4 and O/IN with mock-infected ST cell fluids at PPW2 (2). Serum, colostrum, and milk samples were tested for antibody to TGEV, and a lymphoproliferative (LP) assay was done on blood mononuclear cells. Suckling pigs were challenge exposed with virulent TGEV.

Results

Sows of groups 1 and 2 had higher IgG and significantly higher antibody titers in colostrum; their pigs had significantly higher serum antibody titer. At challenge exposure of their pigs, LP responses of group-2 sows were significantly higher than those of sows in the other 3 groups. Mean pig mortality ranged from 43 (group 2) to 92% (group 4). Significant negative correlations were observed among litter mortality and sow LP response, colostral titer, and pig serum titer at time of challenge exposure.

Conclusions

In sows vaccinated twice with attenuated live TGEV, the recombinant SPR2-2 administered IM may be comparable to ALV administered IM as a booster. Vaccination failed to provide complete protection to suckling pigs after challenge exposure. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1002–1008)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The protective effects of egg yolk powder prepared from hens vaccinated with heat-extracted antigens from K99-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (etec) strain 431 were evaluated in a colostrum-fed calf model of etec-induced diarrhea caused by a heterologous strain (B44). The antibody powder was obtained by spray-drying the water-soluble protein fraction of egg yolks after removing the lipid and fatty components by precipitation with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate. A total of 16 colostrum-fed calves were studied to determine whether the orally administered antibody powder would prevent fatal bovine colibacillosis caused by a virulent etec strain. Clinical response of individual calves was monitored and evaluated in the context of these variables: fecal consistency score, intestinal colonization, weight loss, and mortality. Control calves that were treated with vehicle (milk with egg yolk powder from nonimmunized hens) had severe diarrhea and dehydration and died within 72 hours after infection was manifested. In contrast, calves fed milk containing egg yolk powder with antipili agglutinin titers of 1:800 and 1:1,600 had transient diarrhea, 100% survival, and good body weight gain during the course of the study. Results indicate that the orally administered egg yolk powder protected against etec-induced diarrhea in neonatal calves and that the protective components may have been the antibodies raised by vaccination of chickens against etec.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether administration of commercially available Escherichia coli antiserum to neonatal foals would affect serum IgG concentration or morbidity and mortality rates during the first 60 days of life.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

271 neonatal foals on 4 well-managed farms.

Procedure

Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. All foals were allowed to suckle colostrum normally. In addition, treatment-group foals were given E coli antiserum (10 ml) orally between 0 and 8 hours after birth. Serum samples were obtained between 18 and 36 hours after birth, and serum IgG concentration was determined. Foals were monitored for the first 60 days after birth, and causes of disease or death were recorded.

Results

Groups did not differ significantly in regard to breed, sex, month of birth, season of birth, age of dams, parity of dams, duration of gestation, or specific gravity of colostrum before suckling. In addition, groups did not differ significantly in regard to mean serum IgG concentration, prevalence of complete or partial failure of passive transfer of immunity, frequency or causes of disease, or frequency of death from infectious causes.

Clinical Implications

In this group of foals on well-managed farms, administration of E coli antiserum did not alter serum IgG concentrations or morbidity and mortality rates during the first 60 days of life. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1746–1750)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Colostrum-deprived calves (n = 24) were fed various amounts of colostrum, colostrum substitute, or milk replacer to establish a range in titer of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody in serum. The calves were then challenge exposed intranasally with a virulent, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-890). After viral challenge exposure, calves were monitored for fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. In addition, viral isolation and viral titration were performed on specimens of nasal secretions, buffy coat cells, and serum obtained from the calves. Fever and systemic spread of virus were detected in calves that had viral neutralizing titer of 256 or lower. Calves that had viral neutralizing titer lower than 16 developed severe clinical disease manifested by fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. Severity and duration of signs of disease decreased as titers of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody increased. These results indicate that low to intermediate titers of passively acquired viral neutralizing antibody were not sufficient to fully protect calves from virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Total protein concentration was determined in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluid, and nasal flush fluid obtained from specific-pathogen-free cats from birth to maturity and from adult conventionally raised cats. Protein components were analyzed by Immunoelectrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Albumin, and α-, β-, and γ-globulins were among the proteins identified in bal fluid, and their isoelectric point ranged from 3.1 to 5.1. γ-Globulin was not detected in serum or bal fluid of newborn kittens before they had ingested colostrum. By day 3 after ingestion of colostrum, IgG was detected in high concentration in serum and was the predominant immunoglobulin in serum and bal fluid of older cats. Nasal flush fluid from cats > 6 months old contained albumin, and α-, β-, and γ-globulins, with IgA being the predominant immunoglobulin. Total protein concentration in nasal flush fluid increased progressively with increasing age, and albumin was the predominant protein. Protein concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in bal fluid from conventionally raised adult cats than in that from specific-pathogen-free cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To examine effects of in utero inoculation with a mutagen-attenuated Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) vaccine (RVF MP-12) on fetal bovids and to assess the safety and efficacy of calfhood vaccination with RVF MP-12.

Animals

18 pregnant Hereford and Hereford-type cows in the third or fifth month of gestation, their progeny, and 25 calves from cows immunized with RVF MP-12 during pregnancy.

Procedure

Bovine fetuses were inoculated, via laparotomy, with 1 ml of RVF MP-12 containing 5 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus. Blood was obtained from newborn calves prior to their ingestion of colostrum. Immune-naive calves and calves born to RVF MP-12-vaccinated dams, ranging in age from 2 to 45 days, were vaccinated with RVF MP-12, and some were later challenge exposed with 1 ml of 5.7 log10 PFU of virulent RVFV strain ZH-501. Cows were monitored for viremia and antibody responses and for hematologic and serum biochemical alterations through parturition or abortion.

Results

Surviving in utero-vaccinated calves were healthy, with no noticeable defects. Except for 1 vaccine-inoculated fetus that died on postinoculation day 21, all in utero-vaccinated fetuses had serum neutralizing antibody titer ≥ 1:20 at the time of delivery. All dams of in utero-vaccinated fetuses also developed neutralizing antibody titer. Calves born to cows vaccinated during gestation did not have antibody at birth, and all but 1 quickly acquired colostral antibody. Postparturient inoculation of immune-naive calves and calves with colostral antibodies resulted in no untoward effects, and all calves with detectable neutralizing antibodies were protected against virulent virus challenge exposure.

Conclusions

Fetal death and abortion would be rare even if fetuses were exposed to RVF MP-12. The trauma and complications associated with in utero inoculation do not make this a practical method of immunization. RVF MP-12 was safe, immunogenic, and protective in calves as young as 2 days of age. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1110–1114)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Newborn pups from 4 large litters were allotted to 6 groups to determine effect of time and route of administration on absorption of an alternate source of immunoglobulin. Selective absorption of specific classes of immunoglobulins was also investigated. The alternate source of immunoglobulin consisted of pooled serum that was administered either po or sc. Control groups were either left with the dam (group C1) or fed milk replacer (group C2). Blood samples were collected from pups at birth and 24 hours. Immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) concentrations were determined by use of radial immunodiffusion on samples of pooled serum, colostrum, and pups’ serum (birth and 24 hours).

Serum IgA concentration was less than the sensitivity of the procedure and was not included in the statistical analysis. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at birth and 12 hours later (group T1) absorbed more (P< 0.05) IgG and IgM than did group-C2 pups, but less (P < 0.05) than did group-C1 pups. Pups fed 8 ml of pooled serum at 12 hours only had significant (P < 0.05) increase of IgG concentration, but no absorption of IgM (P > 0.05) at 24 hours, compared with control pups (group C2). Pups administered 8 ml of pooled serum SC at birth (group SC1) had similar (P > 0.05) absorption of IgG and higher (P < 0.05) absorption of IgM than did pups of group T1. Pups administered 16 ml of pooled serum sc at birth had the highest increase of IgG and IgM concentrations of all treatment groups, but immunoglobulin concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) than those for group-C1 pups. Absorption of IgG was favored, compared with IgM, when pooled serum was fed.

Results indicate clearly that intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins is minimal after 12 hours and thus, another route of administration should be used. Pups in groups SC1 and T1 had similar absorption of IgG, despite lower IgM absorption in pups of group T1. This lower IgM concentration in group-T1 pups may have been the result of selective intestinal absorption or the consequence of low number of pups per group. Subcutaneous administration of 16 ml of pooled serum was the most successful alternative to colostrum, with minimal pain to pups if serum was administered slowly. Serum IgG concentration in Cl pups was higher than expected and probably was attributable to the amount of colostrum available to the pups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research