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Summary

Effects of vena caval banding on portal venous and vena caval hemodynamics were examined in 6 control dogs and in 10 dogs that had undergone attenuation (banding) of the abdominal part of the caudal vena cava and had dimethylnitrosamine-induced multiple portosystemic shunts (pss). Additionally, indocyanine green (icg) extraction and clearance after infusion to steady state were used to calculate hepatic plasma flow in these dogs. Sixteen dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control (n = 6) or diseased(n= 10). Diseased dogs were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg, po, twice weekly) until multiple pss developed, as assessed by results of clinical laboratory tests, ultrasonography, and hepatic scintigraphy. Shunts were confirmed visually at celiotomy and by contrast portography. Venous pressures (caudal vena caval, portal, and hepatic) were recorded before and after vena caval banding for up to 7 days in dogs from both groups. Peritoneal cavity pressures were recorded in all dogs after closure of the body wall. To determine icg extraction and clearance, a bolus injection of icg (0.5 mg/kg, iv) was administered, followed by steady-state infusion of 0.097 mg/min. Extractions and clearances of icg were measured, and from these, hepatic plasma flow rates were determined immediately before and after banding and at 6 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days after banding.

The gradient (caudal vena caval pressure within 1 to 2 mm of Hg of portal pressure) between caudal vena cava and portal venous pressures established at banding was maintained after the first hour in both groups. Caudal vena cava pressures established at banding were maintained throughout the study, with the exception of the first hour in diseased dogs. Extraction ratios were higher in control dogs at all times, except at 48 hours. Clearance was higher in control dogs at all times. Hepatic plasma flow did not differ between groups, except immediately after banding, when flow was greater in diseased dogs, and differences were not found over time in either group. This study indicated that vena caval banding in this model of experimentally induced multiple pss increases and maintains caudal vena cava pressure, relative to portal venous pressure (after the first hour) for 7 days, and that calculated hepatic plasma flow is not persistently improved by vena caval banding.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Six horses were subjected to 3 hours of low-flow ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion of the large colon. After induction of anesthesia, the large colon was exteriorized through a ventral midline celiotomy. Colonic blood flow was measured continuously, using Doppler ultrasonic flow probes placed on the colonic arteries supplying the dorsal and ventral colons and was allowed to stabilize for 15 to 30 minutes after instrumentation. Low-flow ischemia was induced by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline (bl) flow. Colonic mucosal, seromuscular, and full-thickness blood flow were determined on a tissue-weight basis by injecting colored microspheres proximally into the colonic artery supplying the ventral colon. Reference blood samples were obtained at a known flow rate from the colonic artery and vein at a site more distal to the site of injection. Left ventral colon biopsy specimens were harvested at bl, 3 hours of ischemia, and 15 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and tissue samples were digested and filtered to collect the microspheres, and dimethylformamide was added to release the colored dyes. Dye concentration in blood and tissue samples was measured by use of spectrophotometry, and tissue-blood flow was calculated. Data were analyzed, using two-way anova for repeated measures; statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Doppler blood flow decreased to approximately 20% of BL, whereas microsphere blood flow ranged between 13.7 and 15.5% of bl at 3 hours of ischemia. Doppler-determined blood flow increased immediately on restoration of blood flow, reached 183% of bl at 15 minutes of reperfusion, and remained at or above bl throughout 3 hours of reperfusion. This reactive hyperemia was also detected, using the colored microspheres; blood flow increased to 242 and 327% of bl at 15 minutes of reperfusion in the mucosal and seromuscular layers, respectively. Mucosal blood flow was not different from seromuscular blood flow at any time, indicating relatively equal distribution of blood flow between these 2 layers. As determined from the venous reference samples, there was no evidence of arteriovenous anastomoses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

= Liver. Criteria for Selection of Cases The surgery log of the Hospital for Large Animals at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University was reviewed to identify horses that underwent exploratory celiotomy between January 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the urine stream exiting the penile urethra. See PAGE 1067 Comparison of survival rates for geriatric versus nongeriatric horses following exploratory celiotomy for colic Age can be a major factor considered by owners in determining

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

gastric and esophageal pressure necrosis and perforation. Findings illustrate the need for immediate surgical intervention in such cases. See page 537 Indications, complications, and outcome of horses undergoing repeated celiotomy within 14 days

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

–0 monofilament polyglyconate suture, k and the bird recovered without complications. Figure 3— Intraoperative photograph obtained during celiotomy via a ventral midline approach in the patient in Figure 1 , which was found to have an ectopic mineralized

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

that were exercised after IV administration of phenylephrine or rolled via the modified procedure were included in this study. Cases of NSELC that were identified on exploratory celiotomy but were not exercised or rolled before surgery were excluded

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and midline celiotomy. An incision was made in the linea alba from the xiphoid to pubis, and dissection between aponeuroses of the left abdominal wall was performed. A large, well-defined, smooth-surfaced, encapsulated mass was identified between the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Horses were anesthetized, subjected to a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls. Group-2 horses were subjected to 6 hours of low-flow colonic arterial ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline (bl) samples were collected, then low-flow ischemia was induced by reducing ventral colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of bl. All horses were monitored for 6 hours after bl data were collected. blood samples were collected from the colonic vein and main pulmonary artery (systemic venous [sv]) for measurement of plasma endotoxin, 6-keto prostaglandin F (6-kPG), thromboxane B2 (txb 2), and prostaglandin E2 (pge 2) concentrations. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 activities were measured in colonic venous (cv) serum samples. Data were analyzed, using two-way anova, and post-hoc comparisons were made, using Dunnett's and Tu- key's tests. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Endotoxin was not detected in CV or sv plasma at any time. There was no detectable tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6 activity in CV samples at any time. There were no differences at bl among groups for CV or sv 6-kPG, pge 2, or txb 2 concentrations, nor were there any changes across time in group-1 horses. Colonic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3; CV 6-kPG concentration peaked at 3 hours in group-3 horses, then decreased during reperfusion, but remained increased through 6 hours in group-2 horses. Systemic venous 6-kPG concentration increased during reperfusion in group-3 horses, but there were no changes in group- 2 horses. Colonic venous pge 2 concentration increased during ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3, and remained increased for the first hour of reperfusion in group-3 horses and for the 6-hour duration of ischemia in group-2 horses. There were no temporal alterations in sv pge 2 concentration. There was no difference in CV or sv ixb2 concentration among or within groups across time; however, there was a trend (P = 0.075) toward greater CV txb 2 concentration at 3.25 hours, compared with bl, in group-3 horses. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in sv, compared with CV plasma. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-kPG concentrations were approximately 3 to 8 and 5 to 10 times greater, respectively, in CV than in sv plasma. The increased concentrations of 6-kPG and pge 2 in CV plasma were likely attributable to their accumulation secondary to colonic ischemia. The increased values of these vasodilator eicosanoids may have a role in the reactive hyperemia observed during reperfusion. The increased 6-kPG concentration in sv plasma may represent spillover from the colonic vasculature, but more likely reflects systemic production.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ulceration, meibomian gland dysfunction, and tear film deficiencies, on doxycycline concentrations in the tear film must be evaluated. See page 508 Predictors of intestinal surgical site failure in dogs with septic peritonitis following celiotomy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association