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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dietary supplementation with clinoptilolite affects the incidence of parturient paresis and serum concentrations of total calcium (tCa), inorganic phosphorus (PO4 2–), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), and sodium (Na+) in dairy cattle.

Animals—52 dairy cows.

Procedure—Cows were placed into 3 groups. The first 2 groups (group A [n = 17] and group B [17]) were offered a concentrate supplemented with 1.25% and 2.5% clinoptilolite, respectively. The third (group C [n = 18]) served as a control and was offered the concentrate alone. The experiment started 1 month before parturition and lasted until the beginning of the next nonlactating period. Around the time of calving, all cows were monitored for the development of parturient paresis. Blood samples were taken at the commencement of the experiment, on the day of calving, and thereafter at monthly intervals to measure serum tCa, PO4 2–, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ concentrations.

Results—The incidence of parturient paresis in group B cows was significantly lower, compared with group C cows. However, serum concentrations of tCa, PO4 2–, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ were not significantly affected by long-term supplementation with clinoptilolite.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the context of this experiment, clinoptilolite supplementation at 2.5% appeared to have reduced the incidence of parturient paresis in dairy cows, suggesting that its effectiveness depends on the amount incorporated in the ration of cows. Addition of clinoptilolite in the concentrate of dairy cows during the nonlactating period could be used as a cost-effective preventive treatment for parturient paresis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2081–2085)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

Animals—19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg.

Procedure—Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups.

Results—Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:672–676)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Authors and

Abstract

Objective

To study the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and calcium (Ca) on splenocyte cytokine secretion during Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection.

Design

Mice were assigned to the following treatments: 1—noninfected, 2—infected, 3—noninfected/1,25-(OH)2D3, 4—infected/1,25(OH)2D3, and 5—infected/low-Ca diet (0.15%).

Animals

Male beige mice averaging 6 weeks of age and 20 g in body weight.

Procedure

After acclimation to their diets, mice in treatments 2, 4, and 5 were inoculated IV with 108 colony-forming units of M paratuberculosis. At 1, 6, and 12 months after infection, mice in treatment groups 3 and 4 had miniosmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously that delivered 13 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3/day for 14 days. Treatment 5 was included as a control for comparison with treatment 4 because low dietary Ca should increase endogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 values. Splenocytes were isolated from mice at 1, 6, and 12 months and stimulated in vitro with medium alone (nonstimulated), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concanavalin A, and M paratuberculosis whole-cell sonicate (MpS).

Results

Production of interleukin 6 after stimulation with LPS, concanavalin A, or MpS was higher (P < 0.05) for splenocytes isolated from mice fed the low-Ca diet, compared with control infected mice 1 and 6 months after infection. Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor activities were increased (P < 0.05) in splenocytes cultured with LPS and MpS after isolation from mice of the low-Ca group. Mice infused with 1,25(OH)2D3 had higher (P < 0.05) interleukin 1 secretion after stimulation of splenocytes with LPS and higher (P< 0.05) tumor necrosis factor production after incubation with MpS.

Conclusion

1,25(OH)2D3 and low dietary Ca increase cytokine secretion in mice infected with M paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:825–829)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for agricultural feeds, was added to aflatoxin (af)-contaminated diets of 3 lactating dairy cows and evaluated for its potential to reduce aflatoxin M1 (afm 1) residues in milk. During phase I, cows were fed alternating diets that consisted of 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, 0.5% hscas plus 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, and feed with the hscas removed for a final 7 days. The afm 1 milk concentrations from the intervals with hscas added to diets were compared with those times when hscas was absent. The presence of 0.5% hscas in feed containing 200 μg of af/kg reduced afm 1 secretion into the milk by an average of 0.44 μg/L (from pretreatment of 1.85 μg/L to 1.41 μg/L with hscas, a 24% reduction). Following a 10-day period of noncontaminated feed consumption and no afm 1 residues in the milk, phase II of the study was begun. The same experimental design as phase I was used, but the dosages of hscas and af were changed to 1.0% and 100 μg/kg of feed, respectively. The addition of 1.0% hscas in feed containing 100 μg of af/kg decreased afm 1 content in the milk by an average of 0.40 μg/L (from a pretreatment of 0.91 μg/L to 0.51 μg/L when hscas was present, a 44% reduction). These findings suggest that hscas, a high-affinity sorbent compound for af in vitro, is capable of reducing the secretion of afm 1 into milk.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, 1 8.6 to 10.5 mg/dL) and hyperphosphatemia (13.4 mg/dL; reference interval, 1 5.6 to 8.7 mg/dL). The blood glucose concentration (105 mg/dL) was within the reference interval. The ferret was treated by administration of calcium carbonate a (53 mg

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Calcitonin participates in the control of extracellular calcium concentrations. In plasma, calcium is found in 3 fractions: protein-bound calcium, complexed calcium, and ionized calcium. The stimulation of the calcium-sensing receptor located in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

certain minerals. In a recent descriptive study 5 from a stone laboratory in Canada, the most common minerals contained in uroliths from cats were struvite and calcium oxalate. Moreover, calcium oxalate appears to be the most common mineral component in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, sodium, and chloride, which would thus increase urinary excretion of electrolytes and urine production. Two calcium salts that are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat patients with hypocalcemia (CaGlu and CaCl 2 ) were used to induce

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research