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recording for several months. These devices contain a solid-state loop memory, which can store an ECG trace recorded before, during, and after a clinical episode. The ECG traces can be stored automatically or after manual activation (which can be initiated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Coagulopathies associated with cardiac bypass procedures in dogs are complex and poorly understood. Known causes include hemodilution, platelet activation, thrombin activation and enhanced fibrinolysis, and enhanced antithrombin III activity by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

crude indicators of concentrations of soluble coagulation factors, fibrin formation, and platelet function, but the interpretation of these tests is subjective and thus imprecise. 3 Widely used plasma-based tests (eg, activated partial thromboplastin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Development of age-dependent resistance to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was studied, using isolated enterocytes and brush border membranes (bbm) from 7-day-old and 7-week-old pigs. Binding of 125I-labeled heat-stable (125I-STa) enterotoxin to enterocytes and bbm was specific, temperature- and time-dependent, saturable, and partially reversible. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of receptors. Mean ± sd avidity of binding (apparent affinity constant, Ka) of 125I-STa to enterocytes from 7-day-old and 7-week-old pigs was 2.14 ± 0.29 × 108 and 2.72 ± 0.25 × 108 L/mol, respectively. Numbers of STa receptors were calcuated to be 64,903 ± 2,900/enterocyte for 7-day-old pigs and 53,029 ± 3,117/enterocyte for 7-week-old pigs. Numbers of STa receptors expressed per milligram of bbm protein from 7-day-old pigs were 2.66 × 1011, compared with 2.29 × 1011 for bbm from 7-week-old pigs. By 5 minutes after addition of STa to reaction mixtures, intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate concentration increased 13.9-fold in enterocytes from 7-day-old pigs and 8.7-fold in enterocytes from 7-week-old pigs. The particulate guanylate cyclase activity associated with bbm from 7-week-old pigs was slightly more sensitive to low amounts of STa, compared with bbm from 7-day-old pigs; however, differences were not observed at intermediate and high amounts. These data indicate that lack of a secretory response to STa by older pigs is not attributable either to decreased numbers of STa receptors or to decreased signal response between the STa receptor and membrane-bound guanylate cyclase. Development of age-dependent resistance by porcine small intestine to STa appears to be attributable to steps in the secretory pathway that respond to increased concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

atrial fibrillation. Some of the studied markers of a hypercoagulable state are fibrinogen, 14–17 aPTT, 15 D-dimer, 18–22 von Willebrand factor, 16,17,20,23 tissue-plasminogen activator antigen, tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor, plasmin

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-shear cardiac conditions. 29,30 High-molecular weight monomers of von Willebrand factor are important in the activation of platelets subjected to high shear stress, 31 which could indicate less platelet activation in later stages of MMVD. Platelets subjected

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Tissue factor (also known as CD142, coagulation factor III, and tissue thromboplastin) is the primary activator of the coagulation cascade. Tissue factor activates coagulation through the extrinsic pathway by binding to its ligand, plasma FVII

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activated coagulation factor X activity with little activity against activated coagulation factor II (in contrast to UFH, which substantially impairs both activated coagulation factor X and activated coagulation factor II). 4 In humans, use of LMWHs results

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; therefore, the platelet, RBC, and endothelial cell contribution to hypercoagulability may be underestimated. However, the presence of microparticles in the plasma, released when platelets are activated, likely provides the phospholipid medium required for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

an increased tendency for clot formation (ie, hypercoagulability) are known. Surgery and immobilization are considered some of the risk factors for the development of hypercoagulability and postoperative thromboses. 5 The same activation of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research