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  • Author or Editor: Xu Zhang x
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OBJECTIVE To characterize activation and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and mouse erythrocytes.

ANIMALS Five 15-day-old chickens and 2 BALB/c mice.

PROCEDURES Macrophages were extracted from chicken bone marrow or peripheral blood and then stimulated with cytokines secreted from cell lines L929 and HD11. Stimulated chicken macrophages were further cocultured with LPS or mouse erythrocytes, and gene transcription of some distinctive cytokines was detected by use of a real-time PCR assay.

RESULTS Morphological features and phagocytic function of macrophages were characterized. Activated macrophages had an elongated shape with a large cell nucleus, and they had phagocytic function. Distinctive genes encoding the surface marker gene CD11b were identified; high quantities of CD11b were transcribed. Relative transcription of chicken genes BF and BL in mature cells cocultured with both stimuli was lower than for control cells. However, the quantity of genes encoding M1- or M2-distinctive cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β) that were transcribed differed significantly between stimulation with LPS and mouse erythrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Chicken macrophages were differentially stimulated by LPS and mouse erythrocytes, which suggested that in vitro stimulation can distinctly influence the transcription and expression of immune genes of chicken macrophages.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the efficacy of tulathromycin for prevention of abortion in pregnant ewes when administered within 24 hours after experimental inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni.


20 pregnant ewes between 72 and 92 days of gestation.


All ewes were inoculated with a field strain of C jejuni (8.5 × 108 to 10.6 × 108 CFUs, IV). Eighteen hours later, ewes received either tulathromycin (1.1 mL/45 kg [2.4 mg/kg], SC; n = 10) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1.1 mL/45 kg, SC; sham; 10). Ewes were euthanized immediately after observation of vaginal bleeding, abortion, or completion of a 21-day observation period. Necropsy was performed on all ewes, and tissue specimens were obtained for bacterial culture and histologic examination.


1 sham-treated ewe and 1 tulathromycin-treated ewe developed signs of severe endotoxemia and were euthanized within 24 hours after C jejuni inoculation. Seven sham-treated and 2 tulathromycin-treated ewes developed vaginal bleeding or aborted and were euthanized between 4 and 21 days after C jejuni inoculation. The proportion of tulathromycin-treated ewes that developed vaginal bleeding or aborted during the 21 days after C jejuni inoculation (2/9) was significantly less than that for the sham-treated ewes (7/9).


Results suggested that administration of tulathromycin to pregnant ewes following exposure to C jejuni was effective in decreasing the number of C jejuni–induced abortions. Because of concerns regarding the development of macrolide resistance among Campylobacter strains, prophylactic use of tulathromycin in sheep is not recommended.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research