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Objective—To compare 3 types of noxious stimuli applied to various anatomic areas of anesthetized dogs and rabbits for determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC).

Animals—10 dogs and 10 rabbits.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and halothane in a randomized order. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. The MAC was determined by skin incision on the lateral aspect of the chest; clamping of the tail, paw of the forelimb, and paw of the hind limb; and application of electrical current to the oral mucosa (dogs only), forelimb, and hind limb. The MAC was the end-tidal concentration midway between the value permitting and preventing purposeful movement in response to noxious stimuli.

Results—In dogs, mean ± SEM MAC for isoflurane was 1.27 ± 0.05% for clamping stimuli, 1.36 ± 0.04% for oral electrical stimulation, 1.35 ± 0.04% for electrical stimulation to the limbs, and 1.01 ± 0.07% for surgical incision. The MAC for halothane was 0.97 ± 0.03% for tail clamping, 0.96 ± 0.03% for clamping of the limbs, 1.04 ± 0.03% for electrical stimulation, and 0.75 ± 0.06% for surgical incision. In rabbits, MAC for isoflurane was 2.08 ± 0.02% for clamping stimuli, 2.04 ± 0.02% for electrical stimulation, and 0.90 ± 0.02% for surgical incision. The MAC for surgical incision was significantly lower than values for the other methods in both species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of electrical current and clamping techniques resulted in similar MAC values. Surgical incision underestimated MAC values in dogs and rabbits. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:957–962)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To define temporal patterns and risk factors for development of decubital ulcers over the tuber of the spine of the scapula (tuber) of lactating sows.


Prospective study.


147 late-gestation sows and gilts.


Females were examined for skin lesions over the tubers, and body condition score, depth of back fat and depth of soft tissues over the tuber (tuber depth) were determined (day 0). On days 5, 12, 18,40, 54, and 68, sows were examined for lesions over the tubers. Data on sow parity, date of farrowing, total number of pigs born/litter, and number of stillborn pigs/litter were obtained from farm records.


Ulcers were recorded for 33 of 206 (16%) shoulders by day 5. Peak prevalence (99/206; 48% of shoulders) was on day 12, and all ulcers had resolved by day 68. Ulcers were more common on the right shoulder. Considerable resolution of ulcers was evident between days 12 and 18, when sows still were housed in farrowing crates. Parity and tuber depth were significantly associated with ulcers and ulcer severity (size) on day 12.

Clinical Implications—

Decubital ulcers in lactating sows are a multifactorial condition. Factors such as floor type are important, but other physiologic and behavioral factors of periparturient swine, including body weight, body condition and mobility of lategestation animals, duration of farrowing, and patterns of recumbency and activity, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lesions. Housing sows on hard floors is not a sufficient cause of decubital ulcers over the scapula. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1173–1178)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association