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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency and sites of communication between the lateral and medial synovial sacs of the metatarsophalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints in cattle.

Animals

188 limbs were obtained from 55 fresh bovine cadavers submitted for necropsy because of problems unrelated to the fetlocks.

Procedure

In each ox, lateral or medial synovial sacs of each fetlock were randomly assigned. Joints were injected with a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. Communication between 2 joints was determined by presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examining frozen sections and use of positive-contrast arthrography.

Results

Communication between the 2 synovial sacs existed in 186 of 188 (98.9%) specimens. The communication site between lateral and medial synovial sacs was located at the level of the proximal sesamoid bones, between the distal aspect of the interdigital band of the axial branch of the interosseus muscle and the metacarpal or metatarsal bone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although communication between the lateral and medial synovial sacs did not exist in 2 specimens, the fetlock in cattle can be treated as 1 compartment. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:710–712)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency and sites of communication among the antebrachiocarpal, middle carpal, and carpometacarpal joints in cattle.

Animals

137 limbs were obtained from 72 fresh bovine cadavers submitted for necropsy because of problems unrelated to the carpus.

Procedure

1 of the 3 injection sites was randomly assigned to both carpi of each ox, and a mixture of latex and barium sulfate was injected into the joint. Communication between 2 or more joints was determined by the presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examination of frozen sections, positive-contrast arthrography, and fluoroscopy.

Results

Communication existed among the 3 joints in 18 specimens (13.1%). The middle carpal joint and the carpometacarpal joint always communicated. The antebrachiocarpal joint communicated with the middle carpal joint between the ulnar and intermediate carpal bones. The middle carpal and carpometacarpal joints always communicated between the fourth and fused second and third carpal bones. In a few specimens, additional sites of communication were identified at the palmar aspect of the fourth carpal bone and the fused second and third carpal bones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Individual anatomic variation of the carpus in cattle should be considered when diagnostic or treatment protocols are established. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:7–10)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency of communication between the lateral and medial femorotibial joints and the femoropatellar joint in cattle.

Design

1 of 3 injection sites was randomly assigned to each ox.

Animais

102 limbs were obtained from 55 fresh bovine cadavers presented for necropsy with problems unrelated to the stifle.

Procedure

The joints were injected with a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. Communication between 2 or more joints was determined by the presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examining frozen sections and positive-contrast arthrography.

Results

Communication between the 3 joints was present in 58 (56.9%) limbs. The femoropatellar and the medial femorotibial joints always communicated. Thirteen of 38 (34.2%) specimens injected in the lateral femorotibial joint did not communicate with the 2 other joints. The femoropatellar joint communicated with the lateral and medial femorotibial joints on the distal abaxial aspect of the trochlear ridge.

Conclusion

Individual anatomic variation of the stifle in cattle should be considered when diagnostic or treatment protocols are established.

Clinical Relevance

The lateral femorotibial joint should be treated separately because it does not consistently communicate with the femoropatellar or medial femorotibial joint. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:798–802)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research