Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: Peter M. Smith x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—3 immature screw-tailed dogs were evaluated because of progressive pelvic limb paraparesis.

Clinical Findings—Each dog had marked ataxia and paresis of the pelvic limbs and a palpable deformity of the midthoracic portion of the vertebral column. Pain perception in the pelvic limbs was considered normal, and there was no evidence of fecal or urinary incontinence in any of the 3 dogs. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hemivertebrae with severe dorsoventral stenosis of the vertebral canal resulting in spinal cord compression in 2 dogs and lateral compression in the other.

Treatment and Outcome—Each dog underwent decompressive surgery consisting of dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy and vertebral stabilization by use of combinations of Kirschner wires or threaded external fixator pins plus polymethylmethacrylate bone cement. All dogs regained strong locomotor function with minimal residual pelvic limb ataxia.

Clinical Relevance—Little detailed information regarding surgical treatment of hemivertebrae in dogs is available; results of treatment in these 3 dogs suggest that spinal cord decompression and stabilization of the vertebral column can achieve a satisfactory, functional outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (± sd) was 96% (± 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cutaneous arterial blood supply to the tail was evaluated in 12 dogs. Subtraction radiography of internal iliac artery and distal aorta angiography in 3 of these dogs was used to determine arterial blood supply to the tail from the median sacral and lateral caudal arteries. Dissection of the tail in 8 canine cadavers revealed bilateral subcutaneous location of lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries contributed to the reconstruction of a large caudodorsal cutaneous defect in a dog. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation may be indicated to aid reconstruction of large caudodorsal cutaneous defects of the trunk in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Renal electrolyte and net acid excretion were characterized during generation and maintenance of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in a ruminant model. Two phases of renal response with regard to sodium and net acid excretion were documented. An initial decrease in net acid excretion was attributable to increase in bicarbonate excretion with associated increase in sodium excretion. As the metabolic disturbance became more advanced, a second phase of renal excretion was observed in which sodium and bicarbonate excretion were markedly decreased, leading to increase in net acid excretion and development of aciduria. Throughout the metabolic disturbance, chloride excretion was markedly decreased; potassium excretion also decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase in plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations. There was apparent failure to concentrate the urine optimally during the course of the metabolic disturbance, despite increasing plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by hypokalemia and hyponatremia was induced experimentally in 7 adult sheep by diversion (loss) of gastric contents through an Ivan and Johnston cannula placed in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. Cannula placement was easily accomplished, and cannulae were tolerated well by the sheep. Volume of effluent produced during the 60- to 120-hour period of diversion ranged from 7.7 to 14.9 L and tended to be greatest during the first 24 hours. All sheep became dehydrated, with mean pcv and plasma total protein concentration increases of 94.2 and 61.7%, respectively. Plasma chloride concentration decreased in linear fashion from a prediversion mean of 113 mEq/L (range, 111 to 117 mEq/L) to an end-point mean of 54 mEq/L (range, 45 to 65 mEq/L). Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations also decreased, though potassium concentration increased terminally. There were rapid increases in arterial blood pH and bicarbonate and base excess concentrations during the first 48 hours after diversion. However, during the final stages of diversion, sheep developed superimposed metabolic acidosis with increased plasma lactate concentration and high anion gap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the potential effects of feeding fumonisin-containing culture material on the pulmonary clearance of blood-borne particulates and bacteria in swine.

Animals

21 healthy male pigs randomly assigned to control and treated groups.

Procedure

Control pigs were fed a standard grower ration while culture material containing fumonisins (20 mg of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1/kg of body weight/d) was added to the feed of treated pigs for 7 days. On day 8, pigs were anesthetized with halothane and catheterized, using a sterile cut-down procedure. 18 hours after recovery from anesthesia, Monastral Blue or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was infused into the right atrium of treated and control pigs for 30 minutes and pulmonary clearance was determined.

Results

Pigs that were fed fumonisin-containing culture material had a significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ability to clear Monastral Blue and P aeruginosa. Ultrastructural examination of the lung indicated that uptake of copper pigment by pulmonary intravascular macrophages was decreased in treated pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Fumonisins, even when fed to pigs at sub-lethal concentrations, can inhibit pulmonary intravascular macrophages from removing particulate matter and bacteria from the circulation, thus potentially predisposing swine to infectious disease. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1233-1238)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To perform a qualitative analysis of the distribution of µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA in the forebrain and midbrain of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

SAMPLE

8 brains of male budgerigars.

PROCEDURES

Custom-made RNA hybridization probes (RNAscope; Advanced Cell Diagnostics Inc) were used for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays performed on selected fresh frozen prepared sections of brain tissue to identify µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA.

RESULTS

There was κ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami, lateral striatum, mesopallium, tractus corticohabenularis et corticoseptalis, griseum et fibrosum, stratum griseum centrale, medial striatum, and area parahippocampalis. There was µ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the stratum griseum centrale, stratum opticum, dorsomedialis posterior thalami, area parahippocampalis, medial striatum, and nidopallium intermedium.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Consistent with previous studies in pigeons and domestic chicks, κ-opioid receptors were more abundant than µ-opioid receptors in the samples of the present study. The results of this study may also help explain the hyperexcitability or lack of response that can occur with administration of pure µ-opioid receptor agonists, but not κ-opioid receptor agonists. This study was not quantitative, so further research should endeavor to compare the various regions of the brain using FISH technology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (bop), a synthetic implant, were evaluated. Bilateral oval cortical defects (1 × 2 cm) were made in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the proximal portion of the femur in 16 dogs that later were treated with bop fiber (n = 16) or autogenous cancellous bone (n = 11), or were not treated (n = 5). The bop block was attached extraperiosteally to the proximal portion of the humerus in 6 dogs. Radiographic assessment of surgery sites was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic evaluation was performed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Radiographic signs of bone healing were not observed in defects treated with bop fiber. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated had radiographic signs of progressive bone ingrowth. Radiographic evidence of periosteal new bone formation near control and bop-treated defects was observed 4 weeks after surgery; increased periosteal reaction was associated with bop fiber. This new bone had resorbed by week 24, except bone adjacent to bop fiber, where continued periosteal reaction was apparent. Histologic evidence of bone formation was observed extending to, but not incorporating, bop fibers. The bop fibers became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and fibrovascular connective tissue infiltrated between and into bop fibers, but minimal bone formation incorporated the bop material during the follow-up period. During that time, active periosteal new bone formation was evident adjacent to the bop fibers. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated healed by ingrowth of cancellous bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery and by reformation of the lateral cortical wall by week 24. The bop blocks became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, but connective tissue or bone ingrowth into bop blocks was not observed. Results indicate that bop is not osteoconductive within a 6-month time frame when used in subtrochanteric femoral defects or when placed extraperiosteally on the proximal portion of the humerus of clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association