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Objective—To identify the normal gastric acid secretion profile in dogs and determine the degree of gastric acid suppression associated with 4 gastric acid suppressants.

Animals—12 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 24-hour periods with a digital recording system placed via a gastrostomy tube. Baseline measurements were obtained when food was withheld and when dogs were fed a standard diet. Dogs were then treated with ranitidine (2 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), pantoprazole (1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), omeprazole (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), or saline solution for 7 days; intragastric pH was recorded on days 0, 2, and 6. Subsequently, the effects of administering famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 8 h; 6 dogs) and omeprazole as a suspension (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 6 dogs) were evaluated. Median 24-hour intragastric pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were determined.

Results—Median pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were all significantly higher when food was withheld than when dogs were fed. Famotidine, pantoprazole, and omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acid secretion, compared with saline solution, as determined on the basis of median 24-hour pH and percentages of time pH was ≥ 3 or ≥ 4. However, ranitidine did not. Omeprazole suspension suppressed gastric acid secretion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in healthy dogs, famotidine, pantoprazole, and omeprazole significantly suppress gastric acid secretion. Twice daily administration of a suspension of omeprazole, was the only regimen tested that approached the potential therapeutic efficacy for acidrelated disease when assessed by criteria used for human patients. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:425–431)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To examine cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in canine platelets and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in culture.

Sample Population—Canine platelets and MDCK cells.

Procedure—Total RNA was recovered from isolated canine platelets and MDCK cells. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), using complementary DNA probes and primers designed from the human COX sequences, were used to determine COX-1 and -2 (cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression.

Results—Following northern blot analysis, canine platelets were found to express only the 2.8-kb COX- 1 transcript; COX-2 was not detected. Canine MDCK cells expressed the 4.5-kb COX-2 transcript, in addition to the 2.8-kb COX-1 transcript. A single DNA band of 270 base pairs was identified following gel electrophoresis of the product obtained from RT-PCR of mRNA from canine platelets. Sequencing revealed that this PCR product was 90% homologous to a portion of the human COX-1 gene (Genbank M59979).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detection of COX-1 by RT-PCR of RNA obtained from canine platelets is a novel finding. The 90% homology of the PCR product with the human sequence suggests strong conservation between the canine and human COX-1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of the canine gene will be required to fully characterize homologous regions. Because of the importance of COX in the inflammatory process and as a potential target of currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), a better understanding of canine COX may improve our ability to use NSAID appropriately, achieve efficacy, and avoid potential adverse drug effects in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1512–1516)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of therapeutic dosages of aspirin, carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam on platelet function and systemic prostaglandin concentrations in healthy dogs.

Animals—10 hound-crossbred dogs.

Procedures—Aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and a placebo were administered for 7 days in a random order to each of 10 healthy dogs; there was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. One-stage prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and plasma concentrations of thromboxane (TX)B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG)F were measured before and after treatment administration. Platelet function was assessed by use of a platelet-function analyzer and aggregation.

Results—Aspirin, carprofen, and meloxicam did not significantly affect platelet function. Deracoxib caused a mild decrease in platelet aggregation induced by 50μM ADP. Platelet number, Hct, PT, aPTT, and plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF concentrations were unchanged after NSAID administration. Meloxicam administration resulted in a significant decrease in fibrinogen concentration, but results remained within the laboratory reference interval.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of commonly used NSAIDs at therapeutic dosages in healthy dogs did not alter plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF concentrations. Deracoxib administration resulted in a minor abnormality in platelet aggregation. Anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin did not affect platelet function as measured by use of optical aggregometry and a platelet-function analyzer. Further evaluation of the effects of aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2–selective inhibitors on hemostasis should be performed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Sample—48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams.

Procedures—274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated.

Results—Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members’ job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association