OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.
RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.
To use the small data approach of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate the transferability of reference intervals (RIs) for kinetic variables obtained with instrumented gait analysis (IGA) in dogs from an RI-originator laboratory to another laboratory that used the same data acquisition and analytic techniques for IGA in walking dogs.
27 adult client-owned dogs without evidence of lameness.
Dogs were individually walked at their preferred velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway for IGA at the Colorado State University Animal Gait Laboratory (CSU-AGL), and 6 valid trials were analyzed for each dog. The small data approach of the CLSI was then used to evaluate transferability of RIs previously established at the Purdue University Animal Gait Laboratory (PU-AGL). A linear model was used to establish weight-dependent RIs for peak vertical force (PVF).
Results indicated that RIs of dynamic weight distribution (DWD), DWD symmetry index, DWD coefficient of variation, PVF symmetry index, and PVF coefficient of variation were transferable from PU-AGL to CSU-AGL, whereas the weight-dependent RIs for PVF were not. Regression slopes for PVF versus body weight were greater for all limbs in dogs tested at the CSU-AGL, compared with historic results for dogs tested at the PU-AGL.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Use of the small data approach method of the CLSI to validate transference of RIs for IGA kinetic variables in walking dogs was simple and efficient to perform and may help facilitate clinical and research collaborations on gait analysis.
To compare mechanical properties (stiffness, yield load, failure load, and deformation at failure) of 2 pearl-type locking plate system (PLS) constructs (PLS 1 and PLS 2) in a simulated fracture gap model and to compare screw push-out forces of the 2 PLSs with and without plate contouring.
40 PLS constructs.
Mechanical properties of uncontoured PLS 1 (n = 8) and PLS 2 (8) constructs were evaluated in synthetic bone-plate models under axial compression. Screw push-out forces were evaluated in 6 uncontoured and 6 contoured PLSs of each type. Variables of interest were compared between PLS groups and between contoured and uncontoured plates by statistical methods.
Yield and failure loads were higher in the PLS 1 group than in the PLS 2 group, but stiffness did not differ significantly between groups. All constructs failed by plate bending, with greater deformation in the PLS 2 group. Push-out force to screw-plate uncoupling was higher in the PLS 2 group than in the PLS 1 group for uncontoured and contoured plates. Locking mechanism failure of PLS 1 specimens was through screw-thread stripping. The PLS 2 specimens failed by node deformation followed by screwhead stripping.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Distinct mechanical differences were identified between the 2 PLSs. The clinical relevance of these differences is unknown. Further research including cyclic fatigue testing is needed to reveal more clinically pertinent information.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs.
SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS Both procedures significantly increased the ROM and stiffness and significantly decreased the energy absorption of the C5-C6 VMU in ventral and dorsal bending. Both procedures also increased the ROM in positive and negative axial torsion. In negative torsion, total stiffness and stiffness over the maximum ROM tested decreased less for the slanted slot procedure than for the conventional slot procedure. There were no significant differences between procedures for any of the other biomechanical outcomes examined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the biomechanical response of the C5-C6 VMU to the conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures was not significantly different, especially when considering postsurgical instability induced by both procedures. This was most likely due to disruption of the nucleus pulposus and dorsal annulus fibrosus of the disk with both procedures. On the basis of these findings, neither procedure appeared biomechanically superior. Comparative clinical studies are warranted to further evaluate the 2 procedures.