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  • Author or Editor: Martha E. Stebbins x
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Summary

Prevalence of endoparasites (particularly ascarids) in dogs examined at the Oklahoma State University veterinary medical teaching hospital during 1981 to 1990 was determined by fecal and blood examinations. Approximately 1,250 fecal and 900 blood specimens were examined each year. In 1981, 55% of dogs harbored 1 or more parasites, compared with 36% in 1990. Percentages of all endoparasitic species decreased, except Giardia spp, which increased. The greatest decrease in prevalence was for Ancylostoma spp, which changed from 39% in 1981 to 15% in 1990. Prevalence of Toxocara spp and Trichuris spp also significantly decreased from 1981 (8% and 12%, respectively) through 1990 (4% and 9%, respectively). Although there appeared to be a downward trend in these ascarid infections, considerable environmental contamination probably existed and continues to exist because of high fecundity and long survival of eggs in the environment. Prevalence of Dipetalonema spp had a downward trend from a high of 4% in 1981 to < 1% by 1991. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp decreased from 12% in 1982 to 6% in 1985, but by 1990, it was 11%.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe and evaluate a new radiographic view of the elbow joint in dogs that would potentially enhance observation of the medial coronoid process (MCP).

Sample Population—20 cadaver limbs from 10 dogs and clinical examination of 100 elbow joints of 53 dogs.

Procedure—Twenty elbow joints from 10 cadavers were imaged by use of mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, craniocaudal, craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views before and after placement of 3 lead pellets placed on the cranial, medial, and craniodistal aspect of the MCP. Three examiners independently reviewed these radiographs. One hundred elbow joints of 53 dogs with forelimb lameness and signs of pain elicited on palpation of the elbow joint were examined. These joints were radiographed and treated by use of arthroscopy. Three examiners independently graded the radiographs.

Results—The MCP was identified on all Di35M-PrLO views made during the anatomic study. The Di35M-PrLO view had the largest area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of abnormalities of the MCP. Fractured and nonfractured MCP could only be significantly differentiated on Di35M-PrLO and mediolateral views. The Di35M-PrLO view had a higher agreement between examiners than other radiographic views for detection of fractures of the MCP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The Di35M-PrLO view enhances the identification of anomalies and fragmentation of the MCP in dogs, compared with other radiographic views. The Di35M-PrLO view may be of benefit for early screening of dogs potentially affected with elbow dysplasia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1000–1005)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate the accuracy of 2 radiographic methods used to assess tibial plateau slope (TPS) in dogs and evaluate effects of film digitization and radiographic beam placement on TPS measurements.

Sample Population—16 hind limbs from dog cadavers weighing > 20 kg.

Procedures—Radiographs of tibiae were made with the radiographic beam centered over the stifle joint and midshaft of the tibia. Tibiae were collected, the femorotibial contact area was determined, and slope of the medial tibial condyle in relation to the tibial shaft was measured. Radiographs were digitized. Slope of the medial tibial condyle was measured on printed and digitized radiographs read in random order by 6 examiners unaware of anatomic measurements. Three examiners used a conventional measuring technique, and 3 examiners used an alternative measuring technique.

Results—Anatomic measurements were significantly higher than radiographic measurements made by use of the conventional interpretation method but did not differ from radiographic measurements made by use of the alternate method. Measurements from printed radiographs were lower than measurements from digitized radiographs for the 4 most experienced examiners.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurements made by use of a line tangential to the cranial, linear portion of the medial tibial condyle at the femorotibial contact point were accurate measurements of the anatomic TPS. Measurements made by use of the conventional TPS measurement method underestimated the anatomic TPS. Measurements made on digitized radiographs were typically more accurate than measurements made on printed radiographs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:586–589)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine demographic, clinical, and radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—289 dogs identified through the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) and 27 dogs examined at the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital.

Procedure—Demographic characteristics of dogs identified through the VMDB were compared with characteristics of the entire population of dogs entered in the VMDB. Medical records of dogs examined at the teaching hospital were reviewed; the diagnosis was confirmed through review of thoracic radiographs.

Results—Analysis of data from the VMDB indicated that American Cocker Spaniels, West Highland White Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Siberian Huskies, English Springer Spaniels, and dogs > 10 years old had an increased risk of bronchiectasis. Among dogs examined at the teaching hospital, coughing was the most common clinical sign. There was evidence for excessive airway mucus but not hemorrhage. A variety of bacterial organisms were isolated from tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. On thoracic radiographs, cylindrical bronchiectasis, generalized disease, and right cranial lung lobe involvement were most common. Seven of 14 dogs for which follow-up radiographs were available did not have any progression of radiographic lesions. Median duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 9 months (range, 1 day to 10 years). Median survival time was 16 months (range, 2 days to 72 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that despite substantial clinical abnormalities, dogs with bronchiectasis may survive for years. Certain purebred dogs and older dogs may have an increased risk of developing bronchiectasis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1628–1635)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association