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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ.

Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses.

Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques.

Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:752–756)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine prevalence and risk factors for gastric ulcers in show horses.

Design

Field survey.

Animals

50 horses in active training that had been transported to at least 1 event in the 30 days prior to endoscopy.

Procedure

Interview of owner, physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, CBC, and gastric endoscopy were performed.

Results

Gastric ulceration was detected in 58% of the horses. Horses with a nervous disposition were more likely to have ulceration than quiet or behaviorally normal horses. Horses with gastric ulceration had significantly lower RBC counts and hemoglobin concentrations than those without ulceration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Show horses have a high prevalence of gastric ulceration. Lower RBC counts and hemoglobin concentrations may be the result of chronic gastric ulceration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1130–1133)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there was a temporal trend in prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs in the United States and Canada and to determine whether age, sex, and breed were risk factors for the disease.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—1,819,792 dogs examined at 22 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1970 and 1998.

Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Data Base was searched for records of dogs in which a diagnosis of leptospirosis was made, and hospital prevalence was calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between leptospirosis and age, sex, and breed.

Results—677 dogs with leptospirosis were identified. Thus, hospital prevalence was 37 cases/100,000 dogs examined. A significant increase in leptospirosis prevalence between 1983 and 1998 was identified. Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than were female dogs; dogs between 4 and 6.9 years old and between 7 and 10 years old were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year old; and herding dogs, hounds, working dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were at significantly greater risk than companion dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada has increased significantly since 1983. Male dogs of working and herding breeds were at greater risk. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:53–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To describe dynamics of the pet dog and cat populations in a single community in terms of reproductive patterns and turnover.

Design—

Cross-sectional, random-digit dial telephone survey.

Sample Population—

Information gathered from 1,272 households in St Joseph County, Ind that owned a dog or cat between Dec 1, 1993 and Nov 30, 1994 was compared with data on 9,571 dogs and cats received by the Humane Society of St Joseph County during the same period.

Results—

Prevalence of pet ownership was lower than expected, compared with consumer panel surveys. Eight hundred forty-three of 1,335 (63.1%) dogs were neutered, compared with 816 of 1,023 (79.8%) cats. Cost was cited as a reason that 35 of 441 (7.9%) dogs and 34 of 132 (25.8%) cats were not neutered. Only 33 of 968 (3.4%) dog-owning households reported that their dog had had a litter during the past year, whereas 52 of 662 (7.9%) cat-owning households reported their cat had had a litter of kittens. Most cat litters were unplanned, whereas two thirds of dog litters were planned. Annual turnover in owned pets was 191 of 1,354 (14.1%) dogs and 194 of 1,056 (18.4%) cats. Pet owners underreported relinquishing pets to a shelter in the telephone survey.

Clinical Implications—

A combination of animal shelter- and human population-based data are needed to describe pet population dynamics in a community. Information about species-specific reproductive patterns is essential in designing population control programs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:637–642)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An epidemiologic study was conducted by use of the Veterinary Medical Data Base to investigate risk factors for blastomycosis in dogs. From January 1980 through June 1990, 971 cases of blastomycosis in dogs from 22 North American veterinary teaching hospitals were identified. Of these cases, 114 (11.7%) were excluded from the study because of incomplete information regarding age, body weight, sex, and neuter status. A control group of 417,079 dogs was selected that included all other dogs with medical conditions unrelated to blastomycosis for which records were submitted to the data base during the same period.

The prevalence of blastomycosis in dogs was 205/100,000 admissions during the study period. When veterinary teaching hospitals were grouped on the basis of their general geographic location, dogs in the East South central, East North central, West South central, and South Atlantic regions had a significantly (P < 0.05) increased risk of acquiring blastomycosis, compared with that of dogs in the Mountain/Pacific region. When teaching hospitals from all geographic regions were considered, dogs had a significantly (P < 0.05) increased risk of acquiring blastomycosis in autumn, compared with that in spring.

Sporting dogs and hounds, as defined by the American Kennel Club, were at increased risk for blastomycosis. At highest risk were Bluetick Coonhounds, Treeing-walker Coonhounds, Pointers, and Weimaraners, compared with mixed-breed dogs.

Ages of dogs with blastomycosis tended to be normally distributed. Generally, the highest-risk group was composed of sexually intact male dogs, 2 to 4 years old, weighing 22.7 to 34.1 kg. This same pattern was observed for sporting dogs and hounds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of glucocorticoids provides additional benefits to environmental management of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

Animals—28 horses with RAO.

Procedure—Horses were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe RAO. Within each category, horses were randomly assigned to receive inhaled fluticasone propionate, inhaled control substance, or oral administration of prednisone. During the 4- week study, horses were maintained outdoors and fed a pelleted feed. Clinical scores, pulmonary function, results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and adrenal gland function were determined before and 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of treatment.

Results—Clinical score and pulmonary function of all RAO-affected horses improved during the treatment period. After 4 weeks, clinical scores and pulmonary function of horses treated with a glucocorticoid were not different from those for the control treatment. In horses with severe RAO, treatment with fluticasone for 2 weeks resulted in significantly greater improvement in pulmonary function, compared with pulmonary function after treatment with prednisone or the control substance. Treatment with a glucocorticoid for 4 weeks and a low-dust environment did not have any effect on cellular content of BALF. Treatment with prednisone for 2 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum cortisol concentration, compared with concentrations after administration of fluticasone or the control substance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental management is the most important factor in the treatment of horses with RAO. Early treatment with inhaled fluticasone can help accelerate recovery of horses with severe RAO. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1665–1674)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether routine vaccination induces antibodies against bovine thyroglobulin and autoantibodies against canine thyroglobulin in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 healthy research Beagles and 16 healthy pet dogs.

Procedure—For the research Beagles, 5 dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine and a rabies vaccine, 5 dogs received only the multivalent vaccine, 5 dogs received only the rabies vaccine, and 5 dogs were unvaccinated controls. The multivalent vaccine was administered at 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 26, and 52 weeks of age and every 6 months thereafter. The rabies vaccine was administered at 16 and 52 weeks of age and then once per year. Blood was collected from all dogs at 8, 16, and 26 weeks of age and then 4 times yearly. Assays for antibodies directed against bovine and canine thyroglobulin were performed prior to and 2 weeks after each yearly vaccination. For the pet dogs, blood was collected prior to and 2 weeks after 1 vaccination.

Results—In the research Beagles, there was a significant increase in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies in all vaccinated dogs, compared with control dogs. There was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies in the 2 groups of dogs that received the rabies vaccine but not in the group that received the multivalent vaccine alone. In the pet dogs, there was a significant increase in anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies after vaccination but no significant change in anti-bovine thyroglobulin antibodies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recent vaccination may result in increased anti-canine thyroglobulin antibodies. Whether these antibodies have a deleterious effect on canine thyroid function is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:515–521)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in large breed and giant breed dogs.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—1,637 dogs ≥ 6 months old of the following breeds: Akita, Bloodhound, Collie, Great Dane, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Standard Poodle, and Weimaraner.

Procedure—Owners of dogs that did not have a history of GDV were recruited at dog shows, and the dog's length and height and the depth and width of its thorax and abdomen were measured. Information concerning the dog's medical history, genetic background, personality, and diet was obtained from the owners, and owners were contacted by mail and telephone at approximately 1-year intervals to determine whether dogs had developed GDV or died. Incidence of GDV, calculated on the basis of dogyears at risk for dogs that were or were not exposed to potential risk factors, was used to calculate the relative risk of GDV.

Results and Clinical Relevance—Cumulative incidence of GDV during the study was 6% for large breed and giant breed dogs. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were increasing age, having a first-degree relative with a history of GDV, having a faster speed of eating, and having a raised feeding bowl. Approximately 20 and 52% of cases of GDV among the large breed and giant breed dogs, respectively, were attributed to having a raised feed bowl. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1492–1499)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association