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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 3-day-old 9.5-kg (21-lb) female alpaca cria was examined because of lethargy and anorexia.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed hyperthermia, muscle fasciculations, and tremors of the head. Seizures were also observed, which indicated CNS dysfunction. Hyperosmolar syndrome (HOS) was diagnosed on the basis of hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, azotemia, high plasma osmolarity, and metabolic acidosis.

Treatment and Outcome—A constant rate infusion of regular insulin was administered with hypo-osmolar fluids to treat HOS, and blood glucose and sodium concentrations were successfully lowered. Neurologic deficits resolved with treatment, and the cria was discharged 11 days after admission.

Clinical Relevance—Administration of insulin as a bolus in addition to hypo-osmolar fluids has been advocated in the management of neonatal camelids with HOS. Administration of regular insulin via a constant rate IV infusion was used to successfully manage a neonatal camelid with HOS. This form of insulin administration may allow more control of glucose kinetics in these patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effect of frequent milkout (FMO) on the outcome of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in cows.

Design—Randomized complete block study.

Animals—16 Holstein dairy cows.

Procedure—Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups and were either not infected and not treated (NI-NT), experimentally infected with E coli and not treated (EC-NT), not infected and FMO (NI-FMO), or experimentally infected with E coli and FMO (EC-FMO). The infected quarter in cows in FMO groups was milked out every 4 hours from 16 to 36 hours and every 6 hours from 36 to 84 hours after challenge, with the aid of oxytocin administration. Somatic cell counts (SCC); times to bacterial, clinical, and systemic cures; and serum concentrations of α-lactalbumin were determined.

Results—Use of FMO did not appear to affect SCC. For EC-NT and EC-FMO groups, mean bacterial cure times were 203 and 159 hours, clinical cure times were 276 and 360 hours, and systemic cure times were 144 and 159 hours, respectively; these times were not significantly different. Concentrations of α-lactalbumin were significantly increased in the EC-NT group at 12 hours and in the NI-FMO group at 36 and 60 hours after challenge, compared with values of cows in other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with results in control cows, FMO does not appear to be an efficacious treatment for experimentally induced moderate to severe E coli mastitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:63–66)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine prevalence and relevance of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus and S intermedius intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and determine the ability of the 4-hour tube coagulase (TC) test to differentiate the coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS).


Prevalence of CPS was determined for primiparous cows (point prevalence and prevalence at first parturition) and multiparous cows (point prevalence) of 2 herd groups: < 6% CPS IMI prevalence = low prevalence (LP); > 10% CPS IMI prevalence = high prevalence (HP).

Sample population

For prevalence, cows of 22 dairy herds. For TC, 1,038 CPS strains isolated from cow milk.


Speciation of CPS from aseptically collected composite milk samples was performed. Coagulase-positive isolates from 4 cow groups were tested for their ability to coagulate rabbit plasma by 4 hours: LP and HP primiparous cows at parturition, and LP and HP cows any time after first parturition.


Of 487 CPS in the prevalence study, 82.1% were S aureus, 17.7% were coagulase-positive S hyicus, and 0.2% were S intermedius. Of all CPS IMI in LP herds, 34% were coagulase-positive S hyicus; of all CPS IMI in HP herds, 9% were coagulase-positive S hyicus. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appeared to persist to the end of lactation in 4 cows (mean linear somatic cell count = 3.7). The TC test was ≥ 97% sensitive, ≤ 33% specific, and had a predictive value positive range of 60 to 97% for S aureus isolates.


Coagulase-positive S hyicus appears capable of inducing chronic, low-grade IMI. Staphylococcus intermedius does not appear to be an important mastitis pathogen. The TC test is not valid to use as the sole method to differentiate CPS species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:54-58)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research