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Objective—To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education.


Sample Population—All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions.

Procedures—Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline.

Results—Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether the stress of an ultrasonographic procedure would interfere with the suppressive effect of dexamethasone during a lowdose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) in healthy dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure—In phase 1, an LDDST was performed 5 times at weekly intervals in each dog. Serum samples were obtained 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after dexamethasone injection. A mock 20-minute abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed on all dogs at each time point during the LDDST on weeks 2 through 5. In phase 2, serum cortisol concentrations were measured before and immediately after a 20-minute mock abdominal ultrasonographic examination, as described for phase 1.

Results—We did not detect significant differences after dexamethasone injection when comparing median cortisol concentrations for weeks 2 to 5 (mock ultrasonographic procedure) with median concentration for week 1 (no mock ultrasonographic procedure). For 5 of the 6 dogs, cortisol concentrations after dexamethasone injection decreased to < 35.9 nmol/L after each mock ultrasonographic procedure and remained low for the duration of the LDDST. In phase 2, all dogs had significant increases in cortisol concentrations immediately after the mock ultrasonographic procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A 20-minute mock abdominal ultrasonographic examination performed during LDDST did not alter results of the LDDST in most dogs. Cortisol concentrations measured immediately after a mock ultrasonographic examination were significantly increased. Ultrasonographic procedures should be performed a minimum of 2 hours before collection of samples that will be used to measure cortisol concentrations. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:267–270)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To evaluate indices of renal function in healthy, growing Beagle puppies from 9 to 27 weeks of age and to determine whether indices change with age during this period.

Animals—6 healthy Beagle puppies.

Procedure—Urine collections were performed at 2-week intervals in puppies 9 to 27 weeks old. Daily excretion of urinary creatinine, protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, and calcium were determined, as were quantitative urinalyses including endogenous creatinine clearance, urine protein-tocreatinine ratios (UPr/C), and fractional clearances of sodium (FNa), potassium (FK), chloride (FCl), calcium (FCa), and phosphorus (FP).

Results—Significant differences among age groups were detected for endogenous creatinine clearance, and daily urinary protein, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus excretion. Significant differences also existed among age groups for UPr/C, FNa, FK, FCl and FP. Age-related effects fit a linear regression model for FNa, UPr/C, daily phosphorus excretion, and daily protein excretion. Quadratic regression models were judged most appropriate for endogenous creatinine clearance, FK, daily chloride excretion, and daily potassium excretion. Endogenous creatinine clearance measurements higher than adult reference ranges were observed from 9 to 21 weeks of age. The FNa, FK, FCl, FCa, and FP were slightly higher than those reported for adult dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Selected results of quantitative urinalyses in healthy 9- to 27-week-old Beagle puppies differ with age and differ from those measured in adult dogs. Diagnostic measurements performed in puppies of this age range should be compared with age-matched results when possible. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:577–581)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research