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To report the short-term and long-term outcomes of dogs that underwent the modified closed and traditional closed anal sacculectomy procedures for the treatment of anal sac neoplasia.


90 client-owned dogs.


The medical records of 2 tertiary referral hospitals were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent anal sacculectomy for treatment of anal sac neoplasia between January 2016 and December 2020. Data collected included signalment and preoperative diagnostic findings. The occurrence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, short-term outcomes, and long-term outcomes were also collected. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize dog signalment information, and recurrence, metastasis, and survival proportions were compared between techniques using Fisher exact tests.


35 and 55 dogs, respectively, underwent the modified or traditional closed anal sacculectomy procedure. Minor postoperative complications that resolved with minimal intervention occurred in 5 of 35 (14.3%) modified approach dogs and 12 of 55 (21.8%) traditional approach dogs. Tumor recurrence was confirmed in 8 of 35 (22.9%) modified and 8 of 55 (26.4%) traditional approach dogs and was suspected in 3 of 35 (8.6%) and 6 of 55 (13.2%; P = .68), respectively. Confirmed metastatic disease was identified in 8 of 35 (22.9%) and 14 of 53 (26.4%) modified and traditional approach dogs, respectively, and was suspected in 4 of 35 (11.4%) and 7 of 53 (13.2%). Sixty-three (70%) dogs survived to study conclusion.


No benefits in complication rate or local recurrence were identified in dogs following the modified approach as opposed to the traditional closed anal sacculectomy technique.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate suturing skills of veterinary students using 3 common performance assessments (PAs) and to compare findings to data obtained by an electromyographic armband.


16 second-year veterinary students.


Students performed 4 suturing tasks on synthetic tissue models 1, 3, and 5 weeks after a surgical skills course. Digital videos were scored by 4 expert surgeons using 3 PAs (an Objective Structured Clinical Examination [OSCE]- style surgical binary checklist, an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill [OSATS] checklist, and a surgical Global Rating Scale [GRS]). Surface electromyography (sEMG) data collected from the dominant forearm were input to machine learning algorithms. Performance assessment scores were compared between experts and correlated to task completion times and sEMG data. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-rater agreement was calculated using percent agreement with varying levels of tolerance.


Reliability was moderate for the OSCE and OSATS checklists and poor for the GRS. Agreement was achieved for the checklists when moderate tolerance was applied but remained poor for the GRS. sEMG signals did not correlate well with checklist scores or task times, but features extracted from signals permitted task differentiation by routine statistical comparison and correct task classification using machine learning algorithms.


Reliability and agreement of an OSCE-style checklist, OSATS checklist, and surgical GRS assessment were insufficient to characterize suturing skills of veterinary students. To avoid subjectivity associated with PA by raters, further study of kinematics and EMG data is warranted in the surgical skills evaluation of veterinary students.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research