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  • Author or Editor: E. Paul J. Gibbs x
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Objective—To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) in a population of US dogs with influenza-like illness (ILI) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,268 pet and shelter dogs with ILI in 42 states.

Procedures—Serum samples collected from dogs from 2005 through June 2009 were tested for H3N8 CIV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Intrinsic factors (age, breed, and sex), extrinsic factors (dogs housed in a shelter facility, boarding kennel, or other setting), and geographic region (southwest, west, Midwest, southeast, and northeast) were compared between seropositive and seronegative dogs to identify variables associated with seropositivity.

Results—Most (750/1,268 [59%]) dogs in the study were from Colorado, Florida, or New York. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 CIV was 49% (618/1,268 dogs; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 51%). The annual prevalence of H3N8 CIV seropositivity increased from 2005 (44%) to 2006 (53%) and 2007 (62%), then decreased in 2008 (38%) and 2009 (15%). The likelihood of H3N8 CIV seropositivity was associated with geographic region (southeast during 2005, west and northeast during 2006 and 2007, and northeast during 2008) and exposure setting (dogs housed in a shelter facility or boarding kennel during 2005 and 2006).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested there is a need for continued surveillance for H3N8 CIV infection in dogs in the United States and that personnel in communal dog-housing facilities should formulate, implement, and evaluate biosecurity protocols to reduce the risk of CIV transmission among dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Results of a prospective serologic and virologic study of ruminant livestock in Central America and the Caribbean islands revealed bluetongue virus (btv) to be enzootic in the 9 countries participating in the study. Bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 3, 6, and 12 were isolated from sentinel animals. To the authors’ knowledge, these are the first isolations of btv from the region studied and the first isolations of these serotypes in the Western Hemisphere. Clinical disease attributable to btv infection was not observed in sentinel animals. The incidence pattern, with respect to age and geographic location, was determined. The need to evaluate the epizootiologic features of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) on a regional ecologic basis is stressed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research