Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for

  • Author or Editor: Denis J. Marcellin-Little x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of goniometry by comparing goniometric measurements with radiographic measurements and evaluate the effects of sedation on range of joint motion.

Animals—16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure—3 investigators blindly and independently measured range of motion of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints of 16 Labrador Retrievers in triplicate before and after dogs were sedated. Radiographs of all joints in maximal flexion and extension were made during under sedation. Goniometric measurements were compared with radiographic measurements. The influence of sedation and the intra- and intertester variability were evaluated; 95% confidence intervals for all ranges of motion were determined.

Results—Results of goniometric and radiographic measurements were not significantly different. Results of measurements made by the 3 investigators were not significantly different. Multiple measurements made by 1 investigator varied from 1 to 6° (median, 3°) depending on the joint. Sedation did not influence the range of motion of the evaluated joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goniometry is a reliable and objective method for determining range of motion of joints in healthy Labrador Retrievers. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:979–986)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To compare cefazolin pharmacokinetics in serum and concentrations in tissues during total hip arthroplasty in dogs with and without hip dysplasia, and to calculate the optimal dosage of cefazolin for prophylactic use during total hip arthroplasty.

Animals

10 dogs with hip dysplasia and 3 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Blood samples and tissue specimens from the coxofemoral joint capsule, acetabulum, and femur were obtained during unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Cefazolin concentrations in serum and tissue specimen supernatant were determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography, for use in pharmacokinetic analysis. Mathematical simulation of serum cefazolin concentrations was used to to predict the optimal dose.

Results

Mean pharmacokinetic constants (SEM) were 0.146 (0.013) mm-1 for α, 4.74 min for t1/2α,, 0.015 (0.004) min-1 for ß, and 46.83 min for t1/2ß. Significant difference was not detected for cefazolin distribution and elimination between dogs with and without hip dysplasia. Additionally, significant difference was not observed in pharmacokinetic parameters describing distribution and elimination between the first and second doses of cefazolin. The predicted optimal dosage regimen was 8 mg/ kg of body weight, IV, every hour or 22 mg/kg, IV, every 2 hours.

Clinical Relevance

For prophylactic IV treatment during total hip arthroplasty, use of cefazolin at a dosage of 8 mg/kg every hour or 22 mg/kg every 2 hours should maintain serum cefazolin concentrations at least 10× the minimum inhibitory concentration for 3 to 4 hours. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:720–723)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare and validate goniometric joint measurements obtained from nonsedated and sedated cats with measurements from radiographic evaluation.

Animals—20 adult cats with no evidence of joint disease.

Procedures—Measurements of flexion and extension of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints and of carpal and tarsal joints during varus and valgus angulation were made by a single investigator before and after sedation of cats. Measurements were made by use of a goniometer with a masked dial. Joint angle measurements were compared between nonsedated and sedated cats and also with measurements from radiographs made while cats were sedated. Each series of measurements was repeated 4 times. To evaluate repeatability, Cronbach α values were calculated for repeated measure results of goniometric joint measurements of nonsedated and sedated cats. An intraclass correlation was calculated to determine reliability among the 3 measurement types (ie, measurements from nonsedated and sedated cats and on radiographic evaluation).

Results—Joint measurements did not differ significantly by measurement type, when comparing radiographic measurements with goniometric measurements in sedated and nonsedated cats. Cronbach α values were > 0.99 for goniometric joint measurements within individual nonsedated and sedated cats and also for comparison of mean meaurements obtained from sedated cats versus nonsedated cats versus radiographs. An intraclass correlation of 0.999 revealed high reliability among measurement types.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that goniometric joint measurements in nonsedated and sedated cats are repeatable and valid.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.

SAMPLE

31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.

PROCEDURES

Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe and evaluate a new radiographic view of the elbow joint in dogs that would potentially enhance observation of the medial coronoid process (MCP).

Sample Population—20 cadaver limbs from 10 dogs and clinical examination of 100 elbow joints of 53 dogs.

Procedure—Twenty elbow joints from 10 cadavers were imaged by use of mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, craniocaudal, craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views before and after placement of 3 lead pellets placed on the cranial, medial, and craniodistal aspect of the MCP. Three examiners independently reviewed these radiographs. One hundred elbow joints of 53 dogs with forelimb lameness and signs of pain elicited on palpation of the elbow joint were examined. These joints were radiographed and treated by use of arthroscopy. Three examiners independently graded the radiographs.

Results—The MCP was identified on all Di35M-PrLO views made during the anatomic study. The Di35M-PrLO view had the largest area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of abnormalities of the MCP. Fractured and nonfractured MCP could only be significantly differentiated on Di35M-PrLO and mediolateral views. The Di35M-PrLO view had a higher agreement between examiners than other radiographic views for detection of fractures of the MCP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The Di35M-PrLO view enhances the identification of anomalies and fragmentation of the MCP in dogs, compared with other radiographic views. The Di35M-PrLO view may be of benefit for early screening of dogs potentially affected with elbow dysplasia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1000–1005)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To design and manufacture custom titanium bone plates and a custom cutting and drill guide by use of free-form fabrication methods and to compare variables and mechanical properties of 2 canine tibial plateau leveling methods with each other and with historical control values.

Sample Population—10 canine tibial replicas created by rapid prototyping methods.

Procedures—Application time, accuracy of correction of the tibial plateau slope (TPS), presence and magnitude of rotational and angular deformation, and replica axial stiffness for 2 chevron wedge osteotomy (CWO) methods were assessed. One involved use of freehand CWO (FHCWO) and screw hole drilling, whereas the other used jig-guided CWO (JGCWO) and screw hole drilling.

Results—Replicas used for FHCWO and JGCWO methods had similar stiffness. Although JGCWO and FHCWO did not weaken the replicas, mean axial stiffness of replicas after JGCWO was higher than after FHCWO. The JGCWO method was faster than the FHCWO method. Mean ± SD TPS after osteotomy was lower for FHCWO (4.4 ± 1.1°) than for JGCWO (9.5 ± 0.4°), and JGCWO was more accurate (target TPS, 8.9°). Slight varus was evident after FHCWO but not after JGCWO. Mean postoperative rotation after JGCWO and FHCWO did not differ from the target value or between methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The JGCWO method was more accurate and more rapid and resulted in more stability than the FHCWO method. Use of custom drill guides could enhance the speed, accuracy, and stability of corrective osteotomies in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare an electron beam melting-processed (EBMP) low-modulus titanium alloy mesh stem with a commercial cobalt-chromium (CC) stem in a canine cadaver model.

Sample Population—9 pairs of cadaver femora.

Procedures—EBMP stems of 3 sizes were placed in randomly chosen sides of femora (left or right) and CC stems in opposite sides. Stem impaction distances were recorded. Five strain gauges were attached to the femoral surface to record transverse tensile (hoop) strains in the femur during axial loading. Constructs were axially loaded 4 times to 800 N and 4 times to 1,600 N in a materials testing machine. Axial stiffness of constructs and bone surface strains were compared between EBMP and CC constructs.

Results—Stems were impacted without creating femoral fissures or fractures. Stem impaction distances were larger for EBMP stems than for CC stems. Mean axial stiffness of EBMP constructs was lower than mean axial stiffness of CC constructs. Subsidence did not differ between groups. Bone strains varied among strain gauge positions and were largest at the distal aspect of the stems. At a load of 1,600 N, bones strains were higher in CC constructs than in EBMP constructs for 2 of 4 medial strain gauges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EBMP stems were successfully impacted and stable and led to a focal decrease in bone strain; this may represent an acceptable option for conventional or custom joint replacement. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1089–1095)

Although cemented hip stems have been used successfully as part of total hip replacements in humans, their success rate has been reportedly lower in younger patients than in older patients. The longterm success of hip stems is affected by aseptic implant loosening, implant wear, and stress-mediated bone resorption (stress shielding). Cementless hip stems were originally developed in part because polymethylmethacrylate bone cement was considered to be a contributing factor to aseptic loosening of cemented hip stems. A portion of a cementless stem is textured or coated with porous surfaces for bone ongrowth and ingrowth. Stem stability relies on initial press fit and long-term bone ingrowth into the porous portions of the stems. Cementless stems are large and have a high

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare 5 radiographic views for the detection of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs with signs of elbow joint pain.

Animals—53 dogs (100 elbow joints) with forelimb lameness and signs of elbow joint pain.

Procedures—Mediolateral (ML), flexed ML, craniocaudal (CC), craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views of the 100 elbow joints were obtained. Four examiners graded radiographs with regard to elbow joint OCD. Joints were assessed by use of arthroscopy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, kappa measure of agreement, and Fisher exact tests for association between median diagnostic value and actual status were computed.

Results—47 joints had an abnormal medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC), and among them, 11 had OCD. The presence of fractures of the medial coronoid process was significantly and positively correlated with the presence of abnormalities of the MAHC (r = 0.40), but was negatively correlated with the presence of OCD (r = −0.32). At 95% specificity, median sensitivities to detect OCD were 57% for Cr15L-CdMO, 56% for CC, 10% for flexed ML, 7% for ML, and 4% for Di35M-PrLO views. The areas under the ROC curves were significantly larger for the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views than for the ML, flexed ML, and Di35M-PrLO views for the detection of OCD. Only the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views allowed accurate detection of OCD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with signs of elbow joint pain, the Cr15L-CdMO view is excellent and the CC view was good for detection of OCD.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research