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  • Author or Editor: Debra D. Morris x
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The umbilical stalk, vein, and arteries, urachal region, and urinary bladder of 9 healthy Holstein calves were scanned ultrasonographically at weekly intervals from 1 day to 3 weeks of age. Four additional calves of representative ages, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks were euthanatized after ultrasonographic evaluation of the umbilical structures. Umbilical structures from these 4 calves were dissected, photographed, and examined histologically to ensure normalcy. These gross specimens were correlated with the ultrasonographic images and compared with serial ultrasonograms of 9 calves. The ultrasonographic scanning technique and the appearance of normal umbilical stalk, arteries, and vein, and urachus in calves were different from those described for foals. The umbilical vein of calves was scanned from the umbilical stalk to the liver along the right abdominal wall. Two veins, which merged within the body wall, were identified within the stalk. Umbilical arteries were not found within the umbilical stalk; they ended abruptly near the apex of the urinary bladder. A urachal remnant was not identified in any of the calves.

A range of normal values for measurement of the umbilical stalk, umbilical arteries, and umbilical vein at 3 sites was determined. The described ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal Holstein calf umbilicus may be used as a reference for evaluation of calves with internal umbilical abnormalities.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To test efficacy of murine monoclonal, rabbit polyclonal recombinant equine or human tumor necrosis factor-α (rETNF or rHTNF, respectively) antibodies to inhibit native equine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity.


8 and 18 healthy adult horses for parts 1 and 2 of the study, respectively.


In part 1, supernates from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages were incubated with various dilutions of each rETNF antibody and subsequently tested for TNF activity. Serum was also obtained from a horse 1 hour after infusion with 20 ng of endotoxin/kg of body weight and was incubated with various dilutions of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody. In part 2, 20 ng of endotoxin/kg was infused in horses during a 30-minute period. Fifteen minutes after the endotoxin infusion was initiated, 1 of 3 preparations was infused: 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody/kg, 0.1 mg of human IgG/kg, or 500 ml of 5% dextrose. Clinical and hematologic data were collected for 24 hours.


Compared with the monoclonal antibody, the rabbit polyclonal rETNF antibody was more effective in inhibiting TNF activity. The 50% effective doses of the murine monoclonal rETNF, rabbit polyclonal rETNF, and rabbit rHTNF antibodies were 1.8, 0.8, and 0.6 μg of antibody/ml, respectively. In part 2, endotoxin infusion resulted in significant alternations in all variables; however, differences among treatment groups were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal rETNF or rHTNF antibodies are capable of inhibiting native equine TNF activity in vitro, when given after initiation of endotoxemia, administration of 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF/kg does not alter the response to infusion of endotoxin. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:792-797)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research