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  • Author or Editor: David E. Stallknecht x
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To determine whether experimental inoculation with a field strain of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype-2 (EHDV-2) suspected of causing clinical disease in naturally infected cattle would cause clinical disease in calves.


8 calves.


A strain of EHDV-2 isolated from a white-tailed deer that died of hemorrhagic disease was passaged twice in deer and used to inoculate 6 calves SC and ID; the other 2 calves were used as controls. Physical examinations, CBC, lymphocyte blastogenesis assays, and coagulation assays were performed; rectal temperature, interferon production, and serum neutralizing antibody responses were measured; and virus isolation was attempted every other day for 21 days after inoculation and then every fourth day for another 30 days. Calves were euthanatized on postinoculation day 51, and necropsy was performed.


Calves inoculated with EHDV-2 became infected, as evidenced by development of viremia and seroconversion. However, the virus did not cause detectable clinical disease, clinicopathologic abnormalities, or gross lesions. Viremia was prolonged despite development of a serum neutralizing antibody response. A white-tailed deer inoculated with the same EHDV-2 strain developed clinical signs of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, demonstrating that the inoculum was virulent.


Calves experimentally infected with EHDV-2 developed viremia and seroconverted but did not develop detectable clinical disease. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:621–626)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine how viral shedding and development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.

Animals—63 pigs.

Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in direct contact with pigs that were experimentally inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation and were serologically tested before and after infection or contact.

Results—Contact transmission developed only when vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day after contact. In pens in which contact transmission was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were infected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs represent an efficient large-animal system for further study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether pigs can be infected with strains of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana (VSV-I) isolated during recent vesicular stomatitis outbreaks that primarily involved horses in the western United States and determine the potential for these viruses to be transmitted by contact.

Animals—128 pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were challenged with VSV-NJ or VSV-I from the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis in the western United States, respectively, or with VSV-NJ (OS) associated with vesicular stomatitis in feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Pigs (3/group) were inoculated with each virus via 3 routes and evaluated for viral shedding, seroconversion, and the development of vesicular lesions. In another experiment, the potential for contact transmission of each virus from experimentally infected to naïve pigs was evaluated.

Results—Infection of pigs was achieved for all 3 viruses as determined by virus isolation and detection of seroconversion. In inoculated pigs, all 3 viruses were isolated from multiple swab samples at concentrations sufficient to infect other pigs. However, compared with results obtained with the 2 VSV-NJ strains, viral titers associated with VSV-I were low and the duration of virus shedding was reduced. Results from the contact transmission trials were consistent with these results; virus transmission was detected most frequently with the VSV-NJ strains.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can be infected with VSV-NJ and VSV-I. Differences in the extent of viral shedding and potential for contact transmission were apparent between serotypes but not between the VSV-NJ strains investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1233–1239)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research