Objective—To evaluate activation of Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in bovine monocytes after incubation with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Mptb) organisms.
Procedures—Bovine monocytes were incubated with Mptb organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the JNK/SAPK pathway (SP600125) for 2, 6, 24, or 72 hours. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β); and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the capacity of Mptb-infected monocytes to acidify phagosomes and kill Mptb organisms were evaluated. Phosphorylation status of JNK/SAPK was evaluated at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after Mptb incubation.
Results—Compared with uninfected control monocytes, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-10 at 2 and 6 hours after incubation and had increased expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, and TGF-β at 2, 4, and 6 hours. Additionally, Mptb-infected monocytes had increased expression of IL-12 at 6 and 24 hours. Addition of SP600125 (specific chemical inhibitor of JNK/SAPK) resulted in a decrease in TNF-α expression at 2, 6, and 24 hours, compared with untreated Mptb-infected cells. Addition of SP600125 resulted in a decrease in TGF-β expression at 24 hours and an increase in IL-18 expression at 6 hours. Addition of SP600125 failed to alter phagosome acidification but did enhance the capacity of monocytes to kill Mptb organisms.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activation of JNK/SAPK may be an important mechanism used by Mptb to regulate cytokine expression in bovine monocytes for survival and to alter inflammatory and immune responses.
Objective—To evaluate the role of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the response of bovine monocytes to exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP).
Sample Population—Monocytes from healthy adult Holstein cows that were known to be negative for MAP infection.
Procedures—Monocytes were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and activation of the NF-κB pathway was detected by use of an electrophorectic mobility shift assay. The capacities of monocytes to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12; to acidify phagosomes; to phagocytize and kill MAP organisms; and to undergo apoptosis were evaluated.
Results—Addition of MAP organisms to monocytes activated the NF-κB pathway as indicated by increased NF-κB–DNA binding. Addition of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB, decreased expression of TNF-α and IL-10, and increased IL-12 expression. Treatment of MAP-exposed monocytes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate increased the rate of apoptosis but failed to alter phagosome acidification, organism uptake, or organism killing by those cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that NF-κB rapidly translocated to the nucleus after exposure of bovine monocytes to MAP organisms. These data suggest that NF-κB is involved in initiation of inflammatory cytokine transcription and inhibition of apoptosis but that it is not directly involved in phagosome acidification or organism killing.