Objective—To characterize urodynamic function and
anatomy before and after colposuspension in anesthetized
Animals—12 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—During general anesthesia (thiopental
sodium induction and halothane maintenance), urethral
pressure profiles, leak point pressure measurements
with a 50-ml bladder volume, positive contrast
cystograms, and retrograde vaginourethrocystograms
were performed. A caudal midline laparotomy was
used to perform colposuspension. Urodynamic and
radiographic studies were repeated after surgery.
Results—Leak point pressures were increased (120
to 168.9 cm H2O), and maximum urethral closure
pressures decreased (43.7 to 19.3 cm H2O ) after colposuspension.
The urethra and bladder were moved
cranially; the external urethral orifice was positioned
closer to the pelvic cavity, and the neck of the bladder
was positioned more cranially into the abdomen.
Length of the urethra, as measured by use of vaginourethrocystograms,
was increased by 3%. As measured
by use of urethral pressure profiles, total profile
length was increased by 19.9%, and functional profile
length was increased by 19.2%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased
leak-point pressure correlated with the expected clinical
improvement attributable to colposuspension.
Increased exposure of the urethra to abdominal and
pelvic cavity pressures may be the mechanism by
which incontinent dogs become continent after colposuspension.
Results of the leak-point pressure test
may correlate with clinical behavior before and after
colposuspension for treatment of incontinence. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:1353–1357)
Objective—To develop laparoscopic-assisted techniques
for enterostomy feeding tube placement and
full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. A trocar cannula
for the laparoscope was inserted on the ventral midline
caudal to the umbilicus. For enterostomy tube
placement, a second trocar cannula was placed lateral
to the right rectus abdominis muscle, and a
Babcock forceps was used to grasp the duodenum
and elevate it to the incision made for the cannula.
The duodenum was sutured to the abdominal wall,
and a feeding tube was inserted. For jejunal biopsy, a
third trocar cannula was placed lateral to the left rectus
abdominis muscle. A portion of jejunum was elevated
to the incision for the second or third cannula,
and a full-thickness biopsy specimen was obtained. A
second specimen was obtained from another portion
of jejunum, and retention sutures for the 2 biopsy
sites were tied so that serosal surfaces of the biopsy
sites were apposed to each other. Dogs were euthanatized
30 days after surgery.
Results—The enterostomy tube was properly positioned
and functional in all 8 dogs that underwent
laparoscopic-assisted enterostomy tube placement,
and sufficient samples for histologic examination
were obtained from all 7 dogs that underwent laparoscopic-assisted jejunal biopsy. None of the dogs had
any identifiable problems after surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in dogs, laparoscopic-assisted procedures
for enterostomy tube placement and jejunal biopsy
are an acceptable alternative to procedures performed
during a laparotomy. (Am J Vet Res 2002;
Objective—To determine outcome of cystoscopic-guided transection for treatment of ectopic ureters in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—16 female dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent cystoscopic-guided transection of the membrane separating unilateral or bilateral ectopic ureters from the urethra and bladder between May 2005 and May 2008 were reviewed. Postoperative outcome was determined by use of telephone interviews conducted 1 to 36 months after the procedure.
Results—4 dogs had complete resolution of urinary incontinence with cystoscopic-guided transection alone, an additional 5 dogs had complete resolution with a combination of cystoscopic-guided transection and phenylpropanolamine administration, and an additional 4 dogs had an improvement in urinary control, although urinary incontinence persisted. Outcome could not be assessed in the remaining 3 dogs because of collagen injections in the urethra at the time of ureteral transection (n = 2) or nephrectomy secondary to unilateral hydronephrosis (1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystoscopic-guided transection may be an acceptable alternative to traditional surgical correction of ectopic ureter in dogs. Most complications associated with the cystoscopic procedure were minor and easily managed.
Objective—To compare effects of medetomidine and
xylazine hydrochloride on results of cystometry and
micturition reflexes in healthy dogs and results of urethral
pressure profilometry (UPP) in sedated and conscious
Procedures—Urodynamic testing was performed 6
times in each dog (3 times after administration of
xylazine [1 mg/kg of body weight, IV] and 3 times
after administration of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM).
Before each episode of sedation, UPP was performed.
Heart and respiratory rates and indirect blood
pressures were recorded prior to and 5, 10, 20, and
30 minutes after injection of sedative. Cystometry
measurements included threshold volume, threshold
pressure, and tonus limb. The UPP measurements
included maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP),
functional profile length, and, in male dogs, plateau
Results—Mean MUCP was decreased markedly in
xylazine- and medetomidine-sedated dogs. Xylazine
and medetomidine also decreased plateau pressure
in male dogs. The MUCP measurements were consistent
among days for conscious and xylazine-sedated
dogs but were inconsistent for medetomidinesedated
female dogs. The proportion of valid cystometry
measurements was greater for xylazine (39 of
60) than for medetomidine (27 of 60). Cystometry
was considered invalid when bladder pressure
reached 30 cm H2O without initiation of a micturition
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomi
dine and xylazine have similar effects on measurement
of UPP and cystometry. Medetomidine was
less consistent among days for UPP in female dogs
and produced fewer valid cystometry tests, compared
with xylazine. For urodynamic evaluations,
medetomidine administered IM cannot be substituted
for xylazine administered IV. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate efficacy and safety of using an electrothermal, feedback-controlled, bipolar sealing device (BSD) for resection of the elongated portion of the soft palate in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstruction.
Design—Uncontrolled clinical trial.
Animals—24 brachycephalic dogs with airway obstruction and elongated soft palate.
Procedures—In all dogs, the excess portion of the soft palate was resected with a BSD. A score for severity of clinical signs of respiratory tract obstruction was assigned before surgery, during the first 24 hours after surgery, and at the time of final follow-up 12 to 23 months after surgery. Potential scores ranged from 0 (no clinical signs even with moderate to vigorous activity) to 4 (agonal breathing or severe cyanosis).
Results—None of the dogs died or developed life-threatening complications after surgery. Clinical scores after surgery (mean ± SD, 0.3 ± 0.6) and at the time of final follow-up (0.9 ± 0.5) were significantly lower than preoperative scores (2.6 ± 0.8).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that a BSD can be safely used for resection of the elongated portion of the soft palate in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstruction.
Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension
in spayed female dogs with urinary
incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or
urodynamic measurements associated with a successful
Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with
Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained,
and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample,
vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry,
and leak point pressure test were performed.
Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative
tests were repeated 2 months after surgery.
Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1
year after surgery.
Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve
had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery,
and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after
surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2
months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP),
compared with preoperative measurements, and
their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs
had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered
greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical
treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension.
Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%)
owners being pleased with their decision to have
surgery performed. The only predictors of complete
urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more
caudal position of the external urethral opening in
relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and
a longer overall urethral length.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension
alone will result in complete urinary control in
few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve
urinary control sufficiently that owners will be
pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may
be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the
LPP test correlates with improved urinary control.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)
Objective—To determine long-term outcome associated
with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in
prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in
susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of
laparoscopy to correct GDV.
Animals—25 client-owned large-breed dogs.
Procedure—23 dogs susceptible to GDV were
referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These
dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation,
clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members
with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy
was performed. One year after surgery,
abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate
the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal
wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with
laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and
Results—None of the dogs developed GDV during
the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined
ultrasonographically had an intact attachment.
Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for
unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully
underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after
the stomach was repositioned.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopicassisted
gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment
between the stomach and abdominal wall, an
absence of GDV development, and few complications.
Dogs with a high probability for development of
GDV should be considered candidates for minimally
invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with
GDV can be treated laparoscopically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1576–1581)
Objective—To develop a model of low urethral pressure
incontinence and compare the relative contributions
of the pudendal and hypogastric nerves with
urethral function by performing selective neurectomy
and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Animals—19 healthy Foxhounds.
Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups. The
first group (10 dogs) underwent bilateral hypogastric
neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy and subsequent
bilateral pudendal neurectomy. The second group (9
dogs) underwent bilateral pudendal neurectomy and
subsequent hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy.
Urethral pressure profilometry and leak
point pressure (LPP) tests were performed before
and after each neurectomy.
Results—Before surgery, mean ± SD LPP and maximal
urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in all dogs were
169.3 ± 24.9 cm H2O and 108.3 ± 19.3 cm H2O,
respectively; these values decreased to 92.3 ± 27 cm
H2O and 60.7 ± 20.0 cm H2O, respectively, after both
selective neurectomy surgeries. There was a progressive
decline of LPP after each neurectomy; however,
MUCP decreased only after pudendal neurectomy.
Fifteen dogs had mild clinical signs of urinary incontinence.
All dogs appeared to have normal bladder
function as indicated by posturing to void and consciously
voiding a full stream of urine. Urinary tract
infection did not develop in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypogastric
and pudendal neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy
caused a maximum decrease in LPP, whereas pudendal
neurectomy caused a maximum decrease in
Impact on Human Medicine—This model may be
useful for evaluation of treatments for improving urinary
control in postmenopausal women. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:695–699)