Objective—To identify practices associated with failure of heartworm prophylaxis among dog and kennel owners and dog trainers.
Design—Online survey and mail-in questionnaire.
Sample—708 members of a national hunting dog club.
Procedures—Heartworm prevention practices used by respondents that reported failure of prophylaxis were compared with practices used by respondents that reported success.
Results—Univariate analyses indicated failure of heartworm prophylaxis was inversely related to the number of dogs under a respondent's care. Year-round prophylactic practice was not significantly associated with reduced odds of failure, and efforts to control exposure to mosquitoes were similar among the comparison groups. Respondents reporting prophylaxis failure were more likely to test for heartworm infection ≥ 1 time/y, compared with those reporting success. In a multivariable analysis, residence south of the Virginia-North Carolina state line (ie, the 37th geographic parallel), testing for heartworm infection < once a year when the test was administered prior to April 1, and keeping dogs outdoors for longer periods at dusk, at dawn, or after dark were associated with increased odds of prophylaxis failure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should stress the importance of annual heartworm testing 6 to 7 months after the last possible date of exposure to heartworm, regardless of whether a dog receives prophylactic treatment year-round. Reducing the number of hours dogs spend outdoors at dusk, at dawn, or after dark may reduce the odds of heartworm disease even when dogs are given preventive treatment.
Objective—To determine the annual and overall proportion
of diagnoses of congenital portosystemic
shunts (CPSS) in dogs and identify breeds at
increased risk for CPSS.
Animals—2,400 dogs with CPSS from veterinary
teaching hospitals that reported to the Veterinary
Medical Database (VMDB) from January 1, 1980 to
February 28, 2002.
Procedure—The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS
was calculated for all dogs and each breed recorded
in the VMDB annually and for the 22.2-year period.
Odds ratios and adjusted confidence intervals were
calculated for breeds with at least 100 accessions by
comparing odds of each breed with a diagnosis of
CPSS with that of mixed-breed dogs.
Results—Congenital portosystemic shunts were
reported in 0.18% of all dogs and 0.05% of mixedbreed
dogs. The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS
increased from 5 in 10,000 dogs in 1980 to 5 in 1,000
dogs in 2001. Yorkshire Terriers had the greatest total
number of diagnoses of CPSS. Thirty-three breeds
were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of
CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The greatest
proportions of diagnoses were found in Havanese
(3.2%), Yorkshire Terriers (2.9%), Maltese (1.6%),
Dandie Dinmont Terriers (1.6%), and Pugs (1.3%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Certain
breeds appear to be at increased risk for CPSS, compared
with mixed-breed dogs. The increased odds
ratios among specific breeds support the hypothesis
of a genetic predisposition for CPSS. Clients and veterinarians
should consider appropriate diagnostic
tests for dogs with clinical signs and those used for
breeding from breeds with increased risk of CPSS.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1636–1639)
Objective—To measure antibody titers against
Leptospira interrogans in serum and vitreous humor
and determine the prevalence of L interrogans in vitreous
humor of horses with recurrent uveitis.
Animals—242 horses (270 eyes) with recurrent
uveitis undergoing vitrectomy and 39 control horses
(54 eyes) without any history or clinical signs of recurrent
uveitis undergoing euthanasia or enucleation for
Procedure—Serum and vitreous humor were tested
for antibodies against 13 serovars of L interrogans.
Vitreous humor was submitted for leptospiral culture;
isolates were typed to the serogroup level.
Results—Leptospira interrogans was isolated from vitreous
humor from 120/229 (52%) horses (126/252
[50%] eyes) with recurrent uveitis but was not isolated
from vitreous humor from 36 eyes of 21 control horses.
Duration of recurrent uveitis was ≥ 1 year for 45 of the
120 (38%) horses from which the organism was isolated.
Geometric mean antibody titers against L interrogans
in the vitreous humor and serum of horses with
recurrent uveitis were 1:1,332 and 1:186, respectively.
Only 91 of 120 (76%) horses from which the organism
was isolated had a 4-fold or greater difference between
serum and vitreous humor antibody titers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that persistent ocular infection with L interrogans
is common in horses with recurrent uveitis. A 4-
fold increase in vitreous humor versus serum antibody
titers may not be a sensitive test for the diagnosis
of L interrogans-induced recurrent uveitis. We
hypothesize that the immune component of recurrent
uveitis can be directly induced and maintained by persistent
infection of the eye with L interrogans. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:795–800)
Objective—To determine the effects of a 24-hour
infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid
(IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations,
and other clinicopathologic variables in
healthy neonatal foals.
Animals—4 healthy 4-day-old foals.
Procedure—An IERF was administered to each foal
at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for
24 hours. Body weight was measured before and
after the infusion period. Urine was collected via
catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were
collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine
production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium,
potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and
serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations;
urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR);
transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage
creatinine clearance (Crcl) of electrolytes were
recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the
infusion period. Immediately after the study period,
net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from
baseline values were calculated.
Results—Compared with baseline values, urine and
serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine
and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Crcl of
sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various
time points during the infusion; urine production did
not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG,
serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium
had significantly decreased from baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic
concentration of sodium may not be appropriate
for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid
therapy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1123–1129)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of incompatible crossmatch results in dogs without a history of prior RBC transfusion and to evaluate changes in Hct following RBC administration for transfusion-naïve dogs that did and did not have crossmatching performed.
DESIGN Retrospective study.
ANIMALS 169 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, pretransfusion Hct or PCV, and crossmatching results where applicable. Dogs that underwent major crossmatching (n = 149) as part of pretransfusion screening were each crossmatched with 3 potential donors. Donor blood was obtained from a commercial source and tested negative for dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs) 1.1, 1.2, and 7 but positive for DEA 4. Mean change in Hct after transfusion was compared between crossmatch-tested dogs (57/91 that subsequently underwent RBC transfusion) and 20 other dogs that underwent RBC transfusion without prior crossmatching by statistical methods.
RESULTS 25 of 149 (17%) dogs evaluated by crossmatching were incompatible with 1 or 2 of the 3 potential donors. All 149 dogs were compatible with ≥ 1 potential donor. Mean ± SD change in Hct after transfusion was significantly higher in dogs that had crossmatching performed (12.5 ± 8.6%) than in dogs that did not undergo crossmatching (9.0 ± 4.3%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated immunologic incompatibility can exist between first-time transfusion recipients and potential blood donor dogs. The clinical importance of these findings could not be evaluated, but considering the potential for immediate or delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or shortened RBC life span, the authors suggest veterinarians consider crossmatching all dogs prior to transfusion when possible.
Objective—To evaluate sedative, antinociceptive, and physiologic effects of acepromazine and butorphanol during tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) anesthesia in llamas.
Animals—5 young adult llamas.
Procedures—Llamas received each of 5 treatments IM (1-week intervals): A (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg), B1 (butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), AB (acepromazine, 0.05 mg/kg, and butorphanol, 0.1 mg/kg), B2 (butorphanol, 0.2 mg/kg), or C (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Sedation was evaluated during a 30-minute period prior to anesthesia with TZ (2 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia and recovery characteristics and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at intervals. Antinociception was assessed via a toe-clamp technique.
Results—Sedation was not evident following any treatment. Times to sternal and lateral recumbency did not differ among treatments. Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer for treatment AB than for treatment C. Duration of antinociception was significantly longer for treatments A and AB, compared with treatment C, and longer for treatment AB, compared with treatment B2. Treatment B1 resulted in a significant decrease in respiratory rate, compared with treatment C. Compared with treatment C, diastolic and mean blood pressures were lower after treatment A. Heart rate was increased with treatment A, compared with treatment B1 or treatment C. Although severe hypoxemia developed in llamas anesthetized with TZ alone and with each treatment-TZ combination, hemoglobin saturation remained high and the hypoxemia was not considered clinically important.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sedation or changes in heart and respiratory rates were not detected with any treatment before administration of TZ. Acepromazine alone and acepromazine with butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) prolonged the duration of antinociception in TZ-treated llamas.
Objective—To determine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on full-thickness skin grafts applied to fresh and granulating wounds of horses.
Procedures—On day 0, two 4-cm-diameter circular sections of full-thickness skin were removed from each of 2 randomly selected limbs of each horse, and two 4-cm-diameter circular skin grafts were harvested from the pectoral region. A skin graft was applied to 1 randomly selected wound on each limb, leaving the 2 nongrafted wounds to heal by second intention. On day 7, 2 grafts were harvested from the pectoral region and applied to the granulating wounds, and wounds grafted on day 0 were biopsied. On day 14, 1 wound was created on each of the 2 unwounded limbs, and the wounds that were grafted on day 7 were biopsied. All 4 ungrafted wounds (ie, 2 fresh wounds and 2 wounds with 1-week-old granulation beds) were grafted. The horses then received HBOT for 1 hour daily at 23 PSI for 7 days. On day 21, the grafts applied on day 14 were biopsied.
Results—Histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed that grafts treated with HBOT developed less granulation tissue, edema, and neovascularization, but more inflammation. The superficial portion of the graft was also less viable than the superficial portion of those not treated with HBOT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of HBOT after full-thickness skin grafting of uncompromised fresh and granulating wounds of horses is not indicated.
Objective—To investigate the effects of the concurrent administration of 70% N2O on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane in dogs, the MAC derivative that blocks motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC derivative that blocks autonomic responses (MACBAR).
Animals—7 adult sexually intact male mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a face mask. Initially, the baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR for sevoflurane were determined by use of a noxious stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, and 10 milliseconds) applied subcutaneously over a midulnar region. Nitrous oxide (70%) was added to the breathing circuit, and MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were determined again. Percentage changes from the respective baseline concentrations for MAC, MACNM’ and MACBAR were calculated after the administration of N2O.
Results—Baseline median values for the MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR for sevoflurane were 1.75%, 2.00%, and 2.50%, respectively. Addition of 70% N2O significantly decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 24.4%, 25.0%, and 35.2%, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly from each other.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Supplementation with 70% N2O caused a clinically important and significant decrease in the MAC, MACNM’ and MACBAR for sevoflurane in dogs.
Objective—To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital.
Procedures—Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements.
Results—Oxacillin resistance increased among S intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.
Animals—95 mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis.
Procedures—Mares were treated with P acnes or placebo (both administered IV) on days 0, 2, and 6. No attempt was made to alter additional treatments administered by attending veterinarians. Information on breeding history, physical examination findings, results of cytologic examination and microbial culture of uterine samples, additional treatments administered, breeding dates, results of pregnancy examinations, whether a live foal was produced, and reactions to treatment was recorded.
Results—In multivariate logistic regression models, mare age, year of entry into the study, and first breeding within 8 days after first treatment with P acnes or placebo were significantly associated with pregnancy. Fewer number of cycles bred and younger age were significantly associated with delivery of a live foal in a separate multivariate analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that mares treated with P acnes were more likely to become pregnant and to deliver a live foal, compared with placebo-treated controls.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of P acnes as an adjunct to conventional treatments in mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis improved pregnancy and live foal rates. The optimal effect was detected in mares bred during the interval extending from 2 days before to 8 days after first treatment with P acnes.