Objective—To demonstrate efficacy of flow cytometric evaluation of expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance–associated protein (MRP) efflux pumps and characterize and correlate their expression and activity in grossly normal canine nodal lymphocytes.
Sample Population—Nodal lymphocytes from 21 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Pump expression was assessed by use of fluorescent-labeled mouse antihuman P-gp (C494) and MRP1 (MRPm6) antibodies and expressed as median values (antibody value divided by isotype control value). The P-gp and MRP activities were assessed by measuring cellular retention of rhodamine 123 and 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate in the absence and presence of inhibitors (verapamil and PSC833 for P-gp, probenecid and MK-571 for MRP). Protein activity was expressed as median fluorescence of cells with inhibitors divided by that without inhibitors.
Results—Expression of P-gp was (mean ± SEM) 50.62 ± 13.39 (n = 21) and that of MRP was 2.16 ± 0.25 (13). Functional activity was 1.27 ± 0.06 (n = 21) for P-gp and both inhibitors and 21.85 ± 4.09 (21) for MRP and both inhibitors. Function and expression were not correlated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of flow cytometry effectively assessed P-gp and MRP expression and activity in canine lymphocytes. Optimization of the flow cytometric assay was determined for evaluating activity and expression of these pumps in canine lymphoid cells. Evaluation of expression or activity may offer more meaning when correlated with clinical outcome of dogs with lymphoproliferative diseases. Cell overexpression of P-gp and MRP can convey drug resistance.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered rapamycin in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 5 healthy purpose-bred hounds.
PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. In experiment 2, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 5 days; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 3, 6, 24, 27, 30, 48, 51, 54, 72, 75, 78, 96, 96.5, 97, 98, 100, 102, 108, 120, 144, and 168 hours after the first dose. Blood rapamycin concentration was determined by a validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and noncompartmental analyses.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blood rapamycin terminal half-life, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 48 hours after dosing, and maximum concentration were 38.7 ± 12.7 h, 140 ± 23.9 ng•h/mL, and 8.39 ± 1.73 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 1, and 99.5 ± 89.5 h, 126 ± 27.1 ng•h/mL, and 5.49 ± 1.99 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters for rapamycin after administration of 5 daily doses differed significantly from those after administration of 1 dose.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of low-dose (0.1 mg/kg) rapamycin to healthy dogs achieved blood concentrations measured in nanograms per milliliter. The optimal dose and administration frequency of rapamcyin required to achieve therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing dogs, as well as toxicity after chronic dosing, need to be determined.