Objective—To quantitate the dose- and time-related
effects of IV administration of xylazine and detomidine
on urine characteristics in horses deprived of
feed and water.
Procedure—Feed and water were withheld for 24
hours followed by IV administration of saline (0.9%
NaCl) solution, xylazine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg), or detomidine
(0.03 mg/kg). Horses were treated 4 times, each
time with a different protocol. Following treatment,
urine and blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 60,
120, and 180 minutes. Blood samples were analyzed
for PCV and serum concentrations of total plasma
solids, sodium, and potassium. Urine samples were
analyzed for pH and concentrations of glucose, proteins,
sodium, and potassium.
Results—Baseline (before treatment) urine flow was
0.30 ± 0.03 mL/kg/h and did not significantly change
after treatment with saline solution and low-dose
xylazine but transiently increased by 1 hour after treatment
with high-dose xylazine or detomidine. Total
urine output at 2 hours following treatment was 312
± 101 mL versus 4,845 ± 272 mL for saline solution
and detomidine, respectively. Absolute values of
urine concentrations of sodium and potassium also
variably increased following xylazine and detomidine
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine and
detomidine administration in horses deprived of feed
and water causes transient increases in urine volume
and loss of sodium and potassium. Increase in urine
flow is directly related to dose and type of α2-adrenergic
receptor agonist. Dehydration in horses may be
exacerbated by concurrent administration of α2-adrenergic
receptor agonists. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine serum concentrations of the selected acute-phase proteins (APPs) haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in pigs experimentally inoculated with classical swine fever (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) viruses.
Animals—8 crossbred (Large White × Landrace) 10-week-old pigs.
Procedures—Pigs were allocated to 2 groups (4 pigs/group). One group was inoculated with the CSF virus Alfort 187 strain, whereas the other groupwas inoculated with the ASF virus Spain 70 isolate. Blood samples were collected at various time points. At the end of the study, pigs were euthanized and a complete necropsy was performed, including histologic and immunohistochemical analyses.
Results—Serum concentrations of APPs increased in pigs inoculated with CSF and ASF viruses, which suggested an acute-phase response in the course of both diseases. The most noticeable increase in concentration was recorded for SAA in both groups (up to a 300-fold increase for CSF virus and an approx 40-fold increase for ASF virus), followed by CRP and then haptoglobin, which each had only 3- to 4-fold increases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum concentrations of APPs increased significantly in pigs inoculated with CSF and ASF viruses. However, differences were evident in serum concentrations of the proteins evaluated in this study.