Antimicrobials have been fed to livestock for more than 60 years. Veterinarians and producers saw tremendous gains in health and performance, and usage became widespread. Over time, improved management reduced some of the benefit of many feed-through antimicrobials except for a few important diseases. As a result of concerns about antimicrobial resistance, the US FDA restricted the use of medically important antimicrobials. Starting in 2017, medically important antimicrobials were restricted to therapeutic purposes only, and only under the order of a veterinarian. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of commonly used antimicrobials in livestock feed and regulatory changes regarding the veterinary feed directive. When used judiciously, in-feed antimicrobials are an important tool to ensure the health and welfare of food animals while preserving the effectiveness for animals and humans.
Objective—To compare composition and colony formation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) harvested from dogs by means of a new perfusion method and the conventional aspiration method.
Animals—7 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—BMMCs were collected from the humeri and femurs of Beagles via perfusion and aspiration methods. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to quantify the presence of contaminant cells from the peripheral blood and the percentage of CD34+ progenitor cells in the BMMCs. A CFU assay was conducted to determine the number of progenitor cells in the BMMCs.
Results—The perfusion method was safely performed in all 7 dogs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the percentages of contaminant CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD21 + lymphocytes in BMMCs obtained via perfusion were significantly lower than percentages obtained via aspiration. The percentage of CD34+ cells obtained via perfusion was significantly higher than that obtained via aspiration. In addition, perfusion yielded a significantly higher CFU count than did aspiration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The perfusion method used in this study can minimize the contamination of bone marrow samples with peripheral blood and was a more efficient means for collecting canine bone marrow progenitor cells than the conventional aspiration method. Therefore, the perfusion method can be more suitable than aspiration for harvesting bone marrow cells for transplantation in dogs.