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  • Author or Editor: Wolfgang Jöchle x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate.

Animals—15 ferrets with ACD.

Procedure—Ferrets were treated SC with a single slow-release, 3-mg implant of deslorelin acetate. Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically.

Results—Compared with findings before deslorelin treatment, vulvar swelling, pruritus, sexual behaviors, and aggression were significantly decreased or eliminated within 14 days of implantation; hair regrowth was evident 4 to 6 weeks after treatment. Within 1 month of treatment, plasma hormone concentrations significantly decreased and remained decreased until clinical relapse. Mean time to recurrence of clinical signs was 13.7 ± 3.5 months (range, 8.5 to 20.5 months). In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In ferrets with ACD, a slow-release deslorelin implant appears promising as a treatment to temporarily eliminate clinical signs and decrease plasma steroid hormone concentrations. Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets. Deslorelin implants may be useful in the long-term management of hormone-induced sequelae in ferrets with ACD and in treatment of animals that are considered at surgical or anesthetic risk. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:910–914)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To evaluate analgesic and sedative effects of medetomidine hydrochloride in dogs and to compare effects with those of xylazine hydrochloride.


Randomized, controlled trial.


184 dogs that required sedation or analgesia for completion of minor diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.


Dogs were sedated with medetomidine, IV (750 μg/m2 of body surface area) or IM (1,000 µg/m2) or with xylazine, IV (1.1 mg/kg [0.5 mg/lb] of body weight) or IM (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb]). Sedative effects were measured by scoring posture and response to noise. Durations of effects were determined by measuring time intervals between drug administration and changes in posture. Analgesic effects were measured by determining toe-pinch pressure needed to elicit a withdrawal response. Clinicians rated sedative and analgesic effects and ease with which diagnostic or therapeutic procedures could be performed.


Posture and response to noise scores were significantly higher for dogs given medetomidine, IM, than for dogs given xylazine, IM, and for dogs given medetomidine, IV, than for dogs given xylazine, IV. Time to regaining sternal recumbency and time to regaining ability to stand were longest after IM administration of medetomidine. Toe-pinch pressures were not significantly different among groups. Clinicians rated overall analgesic and sedative effects as excellent significantly more often after administration of medetomidine than after administration of xylazine. Prevalence of adverse effects did not differ among groups.

Clinical Implications

Medetomidine and xylazine, at doses tested, were effective and safe, but results of subjective measurements indicated that medetomidine provided better sedation and analgesia than did xylazine. Specific α2-adrenergic antagonists (atipamezole, yohimbine) are available for control of adverse cardiovascular effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1413–1417)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association